Jules Ferry (1832-1893)

French statesman of the early Third Republic, notable both for his anticlerical education policy and for his success in extending the French colonial empire.

Ferry pursued his father's profession of law and was called to the Paris bar in 1855. Soon, however, he made a name for himself as a biting critic of the Second Empire, especially by his articles (1867-68) in the newspaper Le Temps attacking Baron George-Eugène Haussmann's administration of Paris.

During the Franco-German War (1870-71), Ferry administered the département of Seine, holding the powers of prefect, and was appointed mayor of Paris in November 1870. His administration of the besieged and hungry capital won him the nickname "Ferry-la-Famine," which haunted him the rest of his life. Ferry was minister to Greece (1872-73) and thereafter for six years was in the republican opposition to the conservative governments and to the presidency of Patrice Mac-Mahon. He then held several offices, serving twice (1880-81, 1883-85) as premier and once (1883-85) as minister of foreign affairs.

Ferry is best known for his government's establishment of free, compulsory, secular education, brought about mainly by a law of 1882. This policy was accompanied by other anticlerical measures, notably decrees (1880-81) dissolving the Jesuits and other congregations not authorized under the Concordat of 1801 between France and the papacy and forbidding their members to direct or teach in any educational establishment. Ferry also played a major part in the dramatic extension of France's colonial territories. Ferry and a few enthusiastic colonialists, in the face of popular apathy or hostility, were largely responsible for France acquiring Tunisia (1881), northern and central Vietnam (Tonkin and Annam; 1883), Madagascar (1885), and the French Congo (1884-85). Public anger over the continuing expenditures needed to complete the conquest of Tonkin swept Ferry from office in March 1885. Despite continuing unpopularity, he was elected to the Senate by Vosges in 1891 and became its president in 1893. The violent polemics aroused against him at this time, however, caused a madman to shoot him, and he died from the wound. (Encyclopaedia Britannica Article)