A kingdom of northern Mesopotamia that became the centre of one of the great empires of the ancient Middle East. It was located in what is now northern Iraq and southeastern Turkey.

Assyria was a dependency of Babylonia and later of the Mitanni kingdom during most of the 2nd millennium B.C. It emerged as an independent state in the 14th century B.C., and in the subsequent period it became a major power in Mesopotamia, Armenia, and sometimes in northern Syria.

Assyrian power declined after the death of Tukulti-Ninurta I (c. 1208 B.C.). It was restored briefly in the 11th century B.C. by Tiglath-pileser I, but during the following period both Assyria and its rivals were preoccupied with the incursions of the seminomadic Aramaeans.

The Assyrian kings began a new period of expansion in the 9th century B.C., and from the mid-8th to the late 7th century B.C., a series of strong Assyrian kings—among them Tiglath-pileser III, Sargon II, Sennacherib, and Esarhaddon—united most of the Middle East, from Egypt to the Persian Gulf, under Assyrian rule.

The last great Assyrian ruler was Ashurbanipal, but his last years and the period following his death, in 627 B.C., are obscure. The state was finally destroyed by a Chaldean-Median coalition in 612-609 B.C.

Famous for their cruelty and fighting prowess, the Assyrians were also monumental builders, as shown by archaeological sites at Nineveh, Ashur, and Nimrud. (Encyclopaedia Britannica Article)