The Punic Wars (264-241, 218-202, 149-146 B.C.)

During the 3rd and 2nd centuries B.C., three wars were fought between Rome and Carthage. The name Punic, which is used to describe them, is derived from the Latin and Greek words for Phoenician. The city of Carthage, located in what is now Tunisia in North Africa, had been founded in 814 B.C. by the Phoenicians—a people whose home city was Tyre (now part of Lebanon).

The first two wars were long—23 years and 17 years, separated by an interval of 23 years. The third war lasted nearly three years. It started 52 years after the end of the second war. All three wars were won by Rome, which subsequently emerged as the greatest military power in the Mediterranean Sea. The enmity of Carthage impelled Rome to build up its large army and to create a strong navy. The great military leaders of the war for Carthage were Hamilcar Barca and his sons Hasdrubal and Hannibal. Rome's outstanding leaders were Scipio Africanus and his adopted grandson, Scipio Aemilianus.

First Punic War (264-241 B.C.)

By 275 B.C. Rome had brought all of what is now Italy under its control. Its next goal was to prevent any threat from nearby islands, especially Corsica, Sardinia, and Sicily. The first war was brought on by a clash between Roman and Carthaginian forces over the city of Messina, Sicily. A group of mercenary soldiers had established themselves in the city. When attacked by forces led by Hiero II of Syracuse, they appealed to both Rome and Carthage for help. Both responded and began fighting with each other.

By gaining mastery of the sea, Rome was able to defeat Carthage. Final victory came on March 10, 241, in a naval battle off the west coast of Sicily. Carthage was forced to yield Sicily and other islands to Rome. In the years after the war it became evident to Carthage that Rome was determined to control the Mediterranean. To avoid complete defeat, the Carthaginian general Hamilcar Barca took an army to Spain in 237 to open new markets and to create a new base of operations. His militarization of Spain was continued by his sons Hasdrubal and Hannibal and his son-in-law Hasdrubal. Hannibal's conquest of the Roman town of Sagunto in Spain led to a new declaration of war by Rome.

The interval between the First and Second Punic Wars (241-218 B.C.)

The loss of naval supremacy not only deprived the Carthaginians of their predominance in the western Mediterranean but exposed their overseas empire to disintegration under renewed attacks by Rome. Even the Greek historian Polybius, an admirer of Rome, considered the subsequent Roman actions against Carthage aggressive and unjustified. A gross breach of the treaty was perpetrated when a Roman force was sent to occupy Sardinia, whose insurgent garrison had offered to surrender the island (238). To the remonstrances of Carthage the Romans replied with a declaration of war and only withheld their attack upon the cession of Sardinia and Corsica and the payment of a further indemnity.

From this episode it became clear that Rome intended to use the victory to the utmost. To avoid further infringement of its hegemony, Carthage had little choice but to respond with force. The recent complications of foreign and internal strife had indeed so weakened the Punic power that the prospect of renewing the war under favourable circumstances seemed remote. Yet Hamilcar Barca sought to rebuild Carthaginian strength by acquiring a dominion in Spain where Carthage might gain new wealth and manpower. Invested with an unrestricted foreign command, he spent the rest of his life founding a Spanish empire (237–228). His work was continued by his son-in-law Hasdrubal and his son Hannibal, who was placed at the head of the army in 221. These conquests aroused the suspicions of Rome, which in a treaty with Hasdrubal confined the Carthaginians to the south of the Ebro River. At some point Rome also entered into relations with Saguntum (Sagunto), a town on the east coast, south of the Ebro. To the Carthaginians it seemed that once again Rome was expanding its interests into their sphere of hegemony. In 219 Hannibal laid siege to Saguntum and carried the town in spite of stubborn defense. The Romans responded with an ultimatum demanding that the Carthaginians surrender Hannibal or go to war. The Carthaginian council supported Hannibal and accepted the war.

Second Punic War (218-201 B.C.)

The second war between Rome and Carthage was one of the great military conflicts of the ancient world. Hannibal led his forces from Spain through the Alps to Italy, arriving near the Po River in 218. He thoroughly defeated a Roman force of more than 15,000 in 217 but did not follow up his victory. The Roman general Quintus Fabius Maximus followed, but did not engage, Hannibal—thus preventing him from establishing a permanent base of operations.

In 216 Rome sent a large army to meet Hannibal. The opposing forces met at Cannae, where Hannibal completely routed the Roman armies. His tactic was simple. He allowed the Romans to drive through his center. Then his brother Hasdrubal wheeled his cavalry around to envelop the enemy flank and rear. The Roman force was surrounded and nearly annihilated. Hannibal again did not follow up his victory with a direct attack on Rome. He remained in Italy, trying to bring Rome's allies to his side.

By 207 Hasdrubal had gone to Spain and returned to Italy with fresh armies. Rome was soon threatened from the north and south. The two Carthaginian forces, however, did not join together. The combined Roman armies defeated Hasdrubal, and Hannibal was left to roam southern Italy until ordered back to Africa in 203. Apart from Italy there was fighting in Sicily and Spain. By 210 all of Sicily was in Roman hands. That same year Scipio Africanus, then known as Publius Cornelius Scipio, was put in command of Roman forces in Spain. He failed to prevent Hasdrubal from taking an army to Italy in 208, but he ended Carthaginian power in Spain by a great victory at Ilipa, near modern Seville, in 206.

After a visit to Rome in 205, Scipio assembled an army and sailed for North Africa in 204. He won campaigns in 204 and 203 against Carthage and its allies. In 202 Hannibal was put in command of Carthaginian forces. He met Scipio's better-trained and disciplined army near Zama. Scipio won and earned the nickname Africanus by which he has been known ever since.

Carthage sued for peace. Under Rome's terms Carthage was forced to give Spain and all Mediterranean islands it controlled to Rome. In addition it was forced to pay a large indemnity and forfeit any independence in foreign policy. This was the effective end of Carthage as a military power.

Third Punic War (149-146 B.C.)

Although powerless militarily, the commercial fortunes of Carthage revived significantly during the next 50 years. It was the envy of Rome's merchant class, aided by friends in the Roman Senate, that brought on the last of the Punic wars. The determination of some Roman politicians—led by Cato the Censor and his incessant chanting of “Carthage must be destroyed”—produced a seemingly reasonable excuse for war. Carthage resisted aggression by an ally of Rome in 150. A Roman army was sent to Africa. Carthage wanted peace but was forced to fight for survival. A siege of Carthage lasted two years without result. Then in 147 Scipio Aemilianus was put in command of Rome's forces. He attacked the city from the harbor side and—in a relentless house-by-house battle—finally overcame all opposition. Carthage was torn down and its site condemned to lie forever desolate. The territory became a Roman province. (Britannica Student Encyclopedia)