Chancellor Certamen 1996
Latin II


1) Toss-Up: Welcome to the Sixth Annual Chancellor Certamen! We hope that you are successful in this tournament. If we were to translate that previous sentence into Latin (read it again, if necessary), we would use what use of the infinitive? INDIRECT STATEMENT
Bonus: What use of the ablative would be in our Latin sentence? ABLATIVE, PLACE WHERE

2) Toss-Up: What happened if a slave were "manumitted"? SET FREE
Bonus: What was a slave's cauda? LOCK OF HAIR/PIG-TAIL TO IDENTIFY HIM AS A SLAVE

3) Toss-Up: What the legendary hero of Rome single-handedly held back the Etruscan army in 508 BC allowing his comrades to escape safely across the Tiber River? HORATIUS
Bonus: Horatius had to swim the river in full armor to return to Rome because his comrades had destroyed what bridge? PONS SUBLICIUS

4) Toss-Up: What is the difference between the translations of "was being carried" and "was carried"? WAS BEING CARRIED - IMPERFECT PASSIVE and WAS CARRIED - PERFECT PASSIVE
Bonus: What imperfect tense shows what type of past action? INCOMPLETE or REPEATED

5) Toss-Up: A shot from whose bow killed Achilles? PARIS
Bonus: What god was said to have guided Paris' arrow? APOLLO

6) Toss-Up: What athletic event is named after a battle between the Athenians and Persians in 490 BC? MARATHON
Bonus: In what track and field event did Myron's Discobolos participate? DISCUS

7) Toss-Up: An alea or talus was a die (singular of dice) used in games. From what were aleae or tali usually made? KNUCKLE BONES OF PIGS
Bonus: The worst throw of the dice was called a canis. What is a canis? DOG

8) Toss-Up: A "clue" is any guide to the solution of a problem. The Middle English word clewe means a ball of yarn or thread. What hero got a clewe and solved the problem of finding his way out of the labyrinth? THESEUS
Bonus: Who gave Theseus a clewe? ARIADNE

9) Toss-Up: Identify the common bond: Curiata, Centuriata, Tributa. COMITIA (accept ASSEMBLIES)
Bonus: Which comitium met to confer imperium on a consul or praetor? CURIATA

10) Toss-Up: What is the difference in meaning between the verbs morior and moror? MORIOR - TO DIE and MOROR - TO STAY
Bonus: What about solus and soleo? SOLUS - ALONE/ONLY and SOLEO - TO BE ACCUSTOMED
11) Toss-Up: The pay for a Roman soldier was called a salarium, which is related to the Latin word for what substance? SALT
Bonus: Why was salt important for a Roman soldier? USED AS CURRENCY or COULD PRESERVE MEAT or SEASONING, etc.

12) Toss-Up: Who suffered the fate of being chained to a rock and having his liver eaten out daily by an eagle or vulture? PROMETHEUS
Bonus: Who suffered the fate of being chained to a rock for a sea-monster? ANDROMEDA

13) Toss-Up: What was the flamen Dialis ? PRIEST OF JUPITER
Bonus: What about the flamen Quirinalis? PRIEST OF QUIRINUS, THE DEIFIED ROMULUS

14) Toss-Up: Today's date is March 30th. Express that date as a first century AD Roman would understand it (you may use the appropriate abbreviations). a.d. III Kal. Apr.
Bonus: The year is AD 1996. Express that as a Roman would understand it A.U.C. MMDCCXLIX

15) Toss-Up: The "Pillars of Hercules" marks what geographical body of water? STRAITS OF GIBRALTAR
Bonus: What mythological monsters makes the Straits of Messina between Italy and Sicily a dangerous place? SCYLLA AND CHARYBDIS

16) Toss-Up: What case is used to show place where with the names of cities and towns? LOCATIVE
Bonus: Titus decided to stay at Athens. Translate the place construction in that sentence into Latin. ATHENIS

17) Toss-Up: Complete the following analogy - Ulysses : Odysseus :: : Persephone. PROSERPINA
Bonus: What did the Romans call Asclepius, the god of medicine? AESCULAPIUS

18) Toss-Up: Identify the common bond: audeo, soleo, gaudeo. SEMI-DEPONENT VERBS
Bonus: Give the last principal parts of each of those verbs. AUSUS and SOLITUS and GAUDEO

19) Toss-Up: Name, in order, the seven kings of Rome. ROM., NUM. POMP., T. HOST., ANC. MARC., TARQ. PRIS., SERV. TULL., and TARQ. SUP.
Bonus: Which Sabine king ruled briefly with Romulus? TITUS TATIUS

20) Toss-Up: Give the Latin and English for the abbreviation R.I.P. REQUIESCAT IN PACE - MAY HE REST IN PEACE
Bonus: What use of the subjunctive is this? OPTATIVE or HORTATORY or JUSSIVE


1) Toss-Up: We use the word "arena" for what a Roman would call an amphitheater. What did arena or harena mean to the Romans? SAND (AS IN THE FLOOR OF THE AMPHITHEATER)
Bonus: For the Romans, which was larger and more ornate: a circus or stadium? CIRCUS

2) Toss-Up: Give the correct form of the relative pronoun in this sentence: Certamen, which is very competitive, is popular in Virginia. QUOD
Bonus: Every year there are several certamina in which we can participate. Give the coorect form of the relative pronoun. (IN) QUIBUS

3) Toss-Up: Who sent Jason to fetch the golden fleece? PELIAS
Bonus: Jason had to fetch the golden fleece (and some say avenge the murder of Phrixus) in order to regain the throne from Pelias who had murdered Jason's father. Name him. NELEUS

4) Toss-Up: What year was called the "year of the four emperors"? AD 69
Bonus: What dynasties ruled directly before and after that tumultuous year? JULIO-CLAUDIAN and FLAVIAN

5) Toss-Up: What did the Romans call the Black Sea? PONTUS EUXINUS
Bonus: What do we know as the Mare Germanicum? NORTH SEA

6) Toss-Up: What editor's or proof-reader's mark was is used to cancel a deletion or other change previously made to a manuscript or proof? STET
Bonus: What does this term mean? "LET IT STAND"

7) Toss-Up: Identify the common bond: far, camillus, pronuba. CONFARREATIO WEDDING
Bonus: What was the meaning of feliciter, shouted at the wedding party as they paraded home? GOOD LUCK or HAPPINESS

8) Toss-Up: Errare humanum est. Why is humanum neuter? INFINITIVES ARE INHERENTLY NEUTER AND TAKE A NEUTER PREDICATE
Bonus: The little-known correct completion of this phrase is "To correct is divine." Is this use of the infinitive subjective, objective, or complementary? SUBJECTIVE

9) Toss-Up: One who withstands all kinds of adversity and seemingly endless delays is said to have the patience of what female character from Homer's Odyssey? PENELOPE
Bonus: After waiting for the return of her husband Odysseus for nearly twenty years, her son, by what name, set out to find his father? TELEMACHUS

10) Toss-Up: Distinguish in meaning between rex, regia, and regnum. REX - "KING"; REGIA - "PALACE"; and REGNUM - "KINGDOM"
Bonus: Using the verb rego, regere, rexi, rectum meaning "to rule", translate into Latin "The kingdom had been ruled by the king in the palace." REGNUM A REGE IN REGIA REGNUM ERAT

11) Toss-Up: Who built the first permanent theater in Rome? POMPEY
Bonus: What is the Greek term for theater which the movie house company Cineplex incorporates into its title? ODEON

12) Toss-Up: In what year was Octavian named Augustus by the Senate? 27 BC
Bonus: What was the term for emperor, which basically meant "chief citizen"? PRINCEPS

13) Toss-Up: Identify the common bond: Aphrodite, Hera, and Athena on Mt. Ida. JUDGMENT OF PARIS
Bonus: What about Eris, Ate, and Discordia? GODDESS OF DISCORD

14) Toss-Up: Distinguish in meaning between vis and vis. VIS (with macron) - "YOU WISH" and VIS - "FORCE" (not STRENGTH, THAT IS ONLY FOR THE PLURAL)
Bonus: What is the Latin and English for the abbreviation of viz.? VIDELICET - "CLEARLY, OBVIOUSLY"

15) Toss-Up: The Nones fall on the 5th and the Ides on the 13th of every month except which four? MARCH, MAY, JULY, OCTOBER
Bonus: What were the original names of the months Julius and Augustus? QUINCTILIS and SEXTILIS

16) Toss-Up: What were the wax busts of masks of ancestors called? IMAGINES
Bonus: In what room of the house would they typically be kept for display? ALAE

17) Toss-Up: Hercules perfomed twelve labors to attone for killing his first wife in a fit of rage. Who was this unfortunate woman? MEGARA
Bonus: Who was Hercule's second wife who inadvertently brought about his death? DEIANIRA

18) Toss-Up: Would a paycheck be an example of ex post facto, quid pro quo, ne plus ultra, or ex tempore? QUID PRO QUO
Bonus: Would your applying sun-tan lotion after a blizzard be non sequitur, sine qua non, or ipso facto? NON SEQUITUR

19) Toss-Up: Who was the author of the Ab Urbe Condita? LIVY
Bonus: Who was the author of the Lives of the Twelve Caesars? SUETONIUS

20) Toss-Up: Give the first person singular, imperfect passive subjunctive of the verb from which we derive the noun "expulsion". EXPELLERER
Bonus: Change to the pluperfect. EXPULSUS ESSEM


1) Toss-Up: What tough Roman king was responsible for the destruction of Alba Longa? TULLUS HOSTILIUS
Bonus: Who had founded Alba Longa? ASCANIUS

2) Toss-Up: What is the perfect active infinitive of the verb from which we derive the English noun "spectator." SPECTAVISSE
Bonus: Change to the future active infinitive. SPECTATURUS ESSE

3) Toss-Up: Economists often speak of per capita income. What does per capita mean? FOR EACH INDIVIDUAL
Bonus: Rome has been called the caput mundi. What does this mean? THE CENTER OF THE WORLD

4) Toss-Up: Arrange these lements of a Roman boy's education in the proper sequence: rhetor, grammaticus, ludus litterarius. LUDUS LIT., GRAMM., RHETOR
Bonus: Name one of the two Greek elements of a youth's training that the Roman's considered mere frills. MUSIC or PHYS. ED. or GYMNASTICS

5) Toss-Up: What cliff-top fortress was the site where Jewish rebels chose to commit suicide rather than surrender to the beseiging Romans? MASADA
Bonus: In what year did this seige end? AD 73

6) Toss-Up: Indentify the common bond: in, super, sub. PREPOSITIONS WHICH CAN TAKE THE ACCUSATIVE OR ABLATIVE CASES
Bonus: What does sub taking the accusative case mean? UNDER, UP TO, TO THE FOOT OF

7) Toss-Up: What is the term for an uninvited dinner guest? UMBRA
Bonus: Umbrae would not be given food from the main course but frusta instead. What is this? SCRAPS or LEFT-OVERS

8) Toss-Up: Which god carried the thyrsus? DIONYSUS or BACCHUS
Bonus: What was Mercury's wand called? CADUCEUS

9) Toss-Up: What is the third person singular, imperfect indicative of the verb from which we get the English word "patience"? PATIEBATUR
Bonus: Chnge patiebatur to the subjunctive. PATERETUR

10) Toss-Up: In the use of Roman numerals, what does it mean when there is a bar over the numerals? X 1000
Bonus: What did it mean when a Roman numeral had a bar on top and on the left and right? X 1,000,000

11) Toss-Up: What river served as the geographical boundary of Italy and Cisalpine Gaul? RUBICON
Bonus: What large river in Northern Italy is fed by the Alps and serves as a major agricultural resource? PO

12) Toss-Up: The editor said that the next edition of the book would be out within three years. Translate the time construction into Latin. TRIBUS ANNIS
Bonus: The first edition was released two years ago. Translate that time construction. ABHINC DUOS ANNOS

13) Toss-Up: Who were the Gemini? CASTOR AND POLLUX
Bonus: Who were the Atridae? AGAMEMNON and MENELAUS

14) Toss-Up: Who was awarded a triumph in 81 BC, 71BC, and 61BC and the consulship in 70 BC, 55BC, and 52 BC although he was not a man of senatorial rank? POMPEY (THE GREAT)
Bonus: Who (reluctantly) cognominated Pompey "Magnus" in 81 BC? SULLA

15) Toss-Up: Translate into Latin: "Part of the boys and all of the girls." PARS PUERORUM ET OMNES PUELLAE
Bonus: How would you say "A few of us?" PAUCI NOSTRUM

16) Toss-Up: Identify the common bond: Tellus, Gaea, Terra. MOTHER EARTH (or MOTHER GODDESS)
Bonus: Identify: Bona Dea, Magna Mater, Cybele. THE GREAT MOTHER GODDESS

17) Toss-Up: The motto of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology is Mens et manus. Translate. MIND AND HAND
Bonus: What is the meaning of Harvard's motto: Veritas? TRUTH

18) Toss-Up: What Greek enchantress turned Odysseus' men into swine and detained him for a year? CIRCE
Bonus: On what island did this take place? AEAEA

19) Toss-Up: Today's date is March 30th. Using the appropriate abbreviations, give the date a first century AD Roman would understand it. a.d. III Kal. Apr.
Bonus: Now give the date without abbreviations. ANTE DIEM III (TRES) KALENDAS APRILES

20) Toss-Up: Numa Pompilius is said to have added two months to the original ten-month calendar. What two months did he add? JANUARY AND FEBRUARY
Bonus: Who further reformed the calendar in 45 BC? JULIUS CAESAR


1) Toss-Up: You have reached the final round of competition. Now is not the time to rest on your laurels. What does that phrase mean? TO BE CONTENT OR SATISFIED WITH ONE'S ACCOMPLISHMENTS
Bonus: Since the laurel was also associated with poetic or prophetic inspiration, what is the title of a nation's greatest poet? POET LAUREATE

2) Toss-Up: What English adjective meaning "overly rash or bold" refers to the son of Daedalus who did not heed his father's warning and flew too close to the son? ICARIAN
Bonus: What is the meaning of the English adjective "daedalian"? INTRICATE or COMPLEX

3) Toss-Up: Who am I? I was a pupil of Aristotle and often dreamed of world conquest. I consolidated Macedonia's hold on Greece and them took control of Asia, Egypt, and Syria. In 326 BC I ordered the Greeks to consider me a god and I found an Egyptian oracle to confirm it. By 325 BC I was in control of a huge territory stretching from Macedonia to India. ALEXANDER THE GREAT
Bonus: At what young age did I die? 32

4) Toss-Up: A sign from ancient Pompeii advertises games to be held on the day before the Kalends of June. They advertise venatio et vela erunt. What is a venatio and in what form does a venatio survive in the world today? AN ANIMAL HUNT; BULL-FIGHTING
Bonus: What was the meaning of vela erunt? THERE WILL BE AWNINGS OVER THE AMPHITHEATER

5) Toss-Up: What is the Latin for "a horn of plenty," signifying any particularly abundant source? CORNUCOPIA
Bonus: One myth lists the origin of the cornucopia as a horn which was broken off of what goat which nbourished Zeus as a infant? ALMATHEA

6) Toss-Up: Distinguish in meaning between tamen and tandem. TAMEN - "HOWEVER" and TANDEM - "FINALLY"
Bonus: What is the difference between tam and tum? TAM - "SO" and TUM - "then"

7) Toss-Up: Identify the common bond: Ptolemy II, Pyrrhus, Hannibal. USED ELEPHANTS IN BATTLE
Bonus: The Romans never used elephants much in battle, but in what other activity did they use them? ARENA

8) Toss-Up: The authority of a pater familias over his descendants was called what? PATRIA POTESTAS
Bonus: What was a husband's authority over his wife called? MANUS

9) Toss-Up: Qui dies est ante diem septem Kalendas Maias? APRIL 25
Bonus: In Roman numerals, what is AD 1996 in A.U.C. reckoning? MMDCCXLIX

10) Toss-Up: If someone tells you to take some information cum grano salis, what do they mean? WITH GRAIN OF SALT meaning WITH CERTAIN RESERVATION OF BELIEF
Bonus: If someone says the information is bona fide, what does she mean? IN GOOD FAITH/TRUE AND BELIEVABLE

11) Toss-Up: Complete the following analogy - puer : genius :: puella : . JUNO
Bonus: When did a Roman child receive a genius or juno? AT BIRTH

12) Toss-Up: After what battle and in wht year did Julius Caesar send back the famous phrase "Veni! Vidi! Vici!"? ZELA IN 47BC
Bonus: At what battle in what year did Caesar succeed in becoming an autocrat, having defeated all of his political opponents? PHARSALUS IN 48BC

13) Toss-Up: What god was said to have been the father of Servius Tullius? VULCAN (not HEPHAESTUS)
Bonus: Though born to a slave-woman, Servius Tullius was marked for greatness when what occured when he was a baby? A BLUE FLAME WAS SEEN FLICKERING AROUND HIS HEAD

14) Toss-Up: "Marcus remained in Sicily for ten months." Translate the time construnction in that sentence into Latin: DECEM MENSES
Bonus: "When he arrives home, we will have a huge banquet." Using a cum clause and the verb advenio, advenire, translate the phrase "When he arrives home..." CUM DOMUM ADVENERIT

15) Toss-Up: What kingdom did Attalus bequeath to Rome in 133BC? PERGAMUM
Bonus: Pergamum was located on the western shore of what large eastern peninsula? ASIA MINOR or TURKEY

16) Toss-Up: Identify the common bond: mane, cliens, sportula. ELEMENTS OF THE SALUTATIO
Bonus: What was the sportula? BASKET OF FOOD or SMALL GIFT OF MONEY

17) Toss-Up: Answer the following question in Roman numerals: Multiply the number of indicative tenses by the number of persons, add the number of voices and divide the whole sum by the number of subjunctive tenses. V
Bonus: Responde Latine (give the Latin name of the number): Multiply the number of cases (not including vocative and locative) by the number of declensions and subtract the sum of the number of genders and numbers. VIGINTI

18) Toss-Up: For what unspeakable act did the primordial giants pile Mt. Ossa and Mt. Pelion on Mt. Olympus? IN ORDER TO REACH AND ATTACK THE GODS
Bonus: These giants sprung from whose blood as it fell upon the earth? CRONUS or SATURN

19) Toss-Up: Translate the motto of the City College of New York: Respice, Adspice, Prospice. "LOOK TO THE PAST, LOOK AT THE PRESENT, LOOK TO THE FUTURE"
Bonus: What is the translation of the motto of North Carolina: Esse Quam Videri? "TO BE RATHER THAN TO SEEM"

20) Toss-Up: "Titus said that he was happy with the new arrangements." Give the correct form of the infinitive in that sentence. ESSE
Bonus: "Titus said that he would be happy." Translate the infinitive in that sentence. FUTURUM ESSE