Chancellor Certamen 1996
Latin I


1) Toss-Up: Welcome to the Sixth Annual Chancellor Certamen. What is the nominative, genitive, gender, and meaning of the Latin word from which "annual" is derived? ANNUS, ANNI, M. "YEAR"
Bonus: What is the Latin for the phrase "sixth certamen"? SEXTUM CERTAMEN

2) Toss-Up: What Roman hero single-handedly (so to speak) proved the strength and bravery of he Romans when he thrust his right hand into a fire and letting it burn? (MUCIUS) SCAEVOLA
Bonus: Whom did Scaelova succeed in impressing? LARS PORSENA

3) Toss-Up: Identify the common bond: ab, ex, de. PREPOSITIONS WHICH TAKE THE ABLATIVE CASE
Bonus: What use of the ablative case do these prepositions take? PLACE FROM WHICH

4) Toss-Up: What happened if a slave were "manumitted"? SET FREE
Bonus: What was a slave's cauda? LOCK OF HAIR/PIG-TAIL TO IDENTIFY HIM AS A SLAVE

5) Toss-Up: Who was sent to Colchis with the Argonauts to retrieve the golden fleece? JASON
Bonus: What beautiful, young woman, the daughter of the king of Colchis, fell in love with Jason and helped him obtain the fleece? MEDEA

6) Toss-Up: What athletic event is named after a battle between the Athenians and Persians in 490 BC? MARATHON
Bonus: In what track and field event did Myron's Discobolos participate? DISCUS

7) Toss-Up: In the sentence, "Gaius, give me that book!", translate "Gaius" into Latin. GAI
Bonus: Translate "me". MIHI

8) Toss-Up: A "clue" is any guide to the solution of a problem. The Middle English word clewe means a ball of yarn or thread. What hero got a clewe and solved the problem of finding his way out of the labyrinth? THESEUS
Bonus: Who gave Theseus a clewe? ARIADNE

9) Toss-Up: What western province did Rome gain after winning the second Punic war? HISPANIA/SPAIN
Bonus: The Carthaginian attack on what city in Hispania led to the second Punic war? SAGUNTUM

10) Toss-Up: What is the difference in meaning between inter and intra? INTER - "BETWEEN" and INTRA - "WITHIN"
Bonus: What about ibi and ubi? IBI - "THERE" and UBI - "WHERE"

11) Toss-Up: Identify the common bond: myrmillo, retiarius, Thracian. TYPES OF GLADIATORS
Bonus: What fourth type of gladiator fought with a sword a, visored helmet, and oblong shield? SAMNITE

12) Toss-Up: What is the Latin phrase which reflects the frailty of man but the endurance of art, his creations? ARS LONGA, VITA BREVIS
Bonus: This phrase was attributed to Hippocrates, better known for his oath for what profession? DOCTORS

13) Toss-Up: The pay for a Roman soldier was called a salarium, which is related to the Latin word for what substance? SALT
Bonus: Why was salt important for a Roman soldier? USED AS CURRENCY or COULD PRESERVE MEAT or SEASONING, etc.

14) Toss-Up: What is the meaning of the Latin phrase terra firma? SOLID EARTH or GROUND (AS OPPOSED TO SEA)
Bonus: What about terra incognita? UNKNOWN TERRITORY or FIRST TIME EXPERIENCE

15) Toss-Up: The "Pillars of Hercules" marks what geographical body of water? STRAITS OF GIBRALTAR
Bonus: What mythological monsters makes the Straits of Messina between Italy and Sicily a dangerous place? SCYLLA AND CHARYBDIS

16) Toss-Up: Complete the following analogy - Ulysses : Odysseus :: : Persephone. PROSERPINA
Bonus: What did the Romans call Asclepius, the god of medicine? AESCULAPIUS

17) Toss-Up: What Latin term, originally restricted to meat, came to be used as a general term for a market containing shops and stalls? MACELLUM
Bonus: What emperor built a huge, semi-circular market place in Rome, along with his forum containing libraries and a column? TRAJAN

18) Toss-Up: By what river did the gods swear oaths? STYX
Bonus: How many times did the Styx flow around Hades? NINE

19) Toss-Up: Given the adjective timidus, timida, timidum meaning "fearful," what would be the adverb and an English translation? TIMIDE - "FEARFULLY"
Bonus: Given the adjective clemens (genitive clementis) meaning "merciful," what would be he adverb and appropriate translation? CLEMENTER - "MERCIFULLY"

20) Toss-Up: What year was called the "year of the four emperors"? AD 69
Bonus: What dynasties ruled directly before and after that tumultuous year? JULIO-CLAUDIAN and FLAVIAN

*Please send scorekeeper to C201 with the scores and instruct the teams in your room to stay in the area assigned to their level and await repitting.


1) Toss-Up: What geographical phrase applied to the Greek territory in Southern Italy and Sicily before the Romans became dominant in Italy? MAGNA GRAECIA
Bonus: What other Mediterranean power shared possession of the island of Sicily? CARTHAGINIAN or PHOENICIAN

2) Toss-Up: What is the ablative singular of the Latin phrase "every time"? OMNI TEMPORE
Bonus: Change omni tempore to the genitive plural. OMNIUM TEMPORUM

3) Toss-Up: Identify the common bond: Aphrodite, Hera, Athena on Mt. Ida? THE JUDGMENT OF PARIS
Bonus: Identify: Eris, Ate, Discordia. THE GODDESS OF DISCORD

4) Toss-Up: Give the correct Latin equivalent for the prepositional phrase in the following Latin sentence: "He read the letter to the slaves." SERVIS
Bonus: Give the correct Latin equivalent for the prepositional phrase in the following Latin sentence: "The letter had been sent to the people." AD POPULUM

5) Toss-Up: According to Christopher Marlowe, Helen had a face which launched a thousand ships. Where in Greece did this fleet gather before departure? AULIS
Bonus: While at Aulis, who offended the goddess Artemis, thus causing the winds not to blow? AGAMEMNON

6) Toss-Up: What is the meaning (not translation) of the Latin phrase rara avis? A TRULY UNUSUAL PERSON
Bonus: What Lain phrase describes a person who is no longer welcome? PERSONA NON GRATA

7) Toss-Up: Who built the first permanent theater in Rome? POMPEY
Bonus: What is the Greek term for theater which the movie house company Cineplex incorporates into its title? ODEON

8) Toss-Up: We always like to hear praise from our Latin treachers when we have translated well. With the Latin word for "praise" being laus, laudis, f., translate "We always like to hear praise." SEMPER AMAMUS AUDIRE LAUDEM.
Bonus: Now with the Latin verb for "translate" being transfero, transferre, transtuli, ranslatum, translate the phrase "we have translated well." TRANSTULIMUS BENE

9) Toss-Up: Identify the common bond: Ptolemy XIII, Julius Caesar, Marc Antony. INVOLVED IN RELATIONSHIPS WITH CLEOPATRA
Bonus: What was the name of Cleopatra's son by Julius Caesar? CAESARION

10) Toss-Up: Based upon your knowledge of Latin roots, what does it literally mean to incorporate more evidence into your essay? TO BRING EVIDENCE INTO THE BODY OF YOUR ESSAY
Bonus: What is literally meant when people ask you to play more contemporary music at your party? MUSIC FROM THE SAME TIME PERIOD AS YOU

11) Toss-Up: What architectural feature would you expect to see atop a rotunda? A DOME
Bonus: What is the opening at the top of the dome called? OCULUS

12) Toss-Up: One who withstands all kinds of adversity and seemingly endless delays is said to have the patience of what female character from Homer's Odyssey? PENELOPE
Bonus: For how long did Penelope have to wait for her husband to return home? TWENTY YEARS

13) Toss-Up: Who was the swiftest of mortals who could not marry until she was defeated in a footrace? ATALANTA
Bonus: Who finally defeated her by the use of golden apples? HIPPOMENES

14) Toss-Up: What were the wax busts of masks of ancestors called? IMAGINES
Bonus: In what room of the house would they typically be kept for display? ALAE

15) Toss-Up: What is the meaning of the correlative construction et... et...? BOTH...AND...
Bonus: What about alii...alii...? SOME...OTHERS...

16) Toss-Up: Spell the answer to the following question: What hero left his plow to save Rome from a military crisis? C-I-N-C-I-N-N-A-T-U-S
Bonus: To what office was he appointed? DICTATOR

17) Toss-Up: We use the word "arena" for what a Roman would call an amphitheater. What did arena or harena mean to the Romans? SAND (AS IN THE FLOOR OF THE AMPHITHEATER)
Bonus: For the Romans, which was larger and more ornate: a circus or a stadium? CIRCUS

18) Toss-Up: Would a paycheck be an example of ex post facto, quid pro quo, ne plus ultra, or ex tempore? QUID PRO QUO
Bonus: Would your applying sun-tan lotion after a blizzard be non sequitur, sine qua non, or ipso facto? NON SEQUITUR

19) Toss-Up: What river did Caesar cross in 49 BC, thus essentially declaring civil war on Rome? RUBICON
Bonus: What river marking the boundary between Gaul and Germany was Caesar the first to cross? RHINE

20) Toss-Up: Identify the author of the following passage: "All Gaul is divided into three parts." JULIUS CAESAR
Bonus: Identify this author: "Seize the day and trust as little as possible in tomorrow." HORACE

*Please send scorekeeper to C201 with the scores and instruct the teams in your room to stay in the area assigned to their level and await repitting.


1) Toss-Up: The English phrase "to make an unexpected comeback" or "to rally after a defeat" refers to what mythological bird? PHOENIX
Bonus: Upon making the comeback of the century in your basketball championship, who would be the Greek goddess of victory to whom you would make your offerings of thanks? NIKE

2) Toss-Up: Which of the following items would an ancient Roman not have eaten: cabbage, cucumbers, onions, tomatoes, or carrots? TOMATOES
Bonus: What was the favorite meat of the Romans? PORK

3) Toss-Up: What were Julius Caesar's famous last words in Latin? ET TU, BRUTE?
Bonus: What about the Greek? KAI SU, TEKNON?

4) Toss-Up: All Romans wore tunics. Who wore a tunic with a narrow crimson stripes running from each shoulder down to the botom of the garment? EQUITES or KNIGHTS
Bonus: What was a tunica recta? GARMENT FOR WEDDING CEREMONY

5) Toss-Up: What is the second person singular, present active indicative of the verb "to bring, bear, or carry"? FERS
Bonus: What is the third person plural, present active indicative of the verb "to go"? EUNT

6) Toss-Up: What cliff-top fortress was the site where Jewish rebels chose to commit suicide rather than surrender to the beseiging Romans? MASADA
Bonus: In what year did this seige end? AD 73

7) Toss-Up: Order Marcus not to climb. NOLI, MARCE, ASCENDERE!
Bonus: Order the boys to climb down. DESCENDITE, PUERI!

8) Toss-Up: Name the three architectural orders of columns. DORIC, IONIC, and CORINTHIAN
Bonus: Of what architectural order is the Parthenon in Athens? DORIC

9) Toss-Up: Here in Fredericksburg there are many examples to ante bellum architecture. What is meant by that phrase? ORIGINATING OR IN A STYLE POPULAR BEFORE THE CIVIL WAR
Bonus: Post bellum, who shouted Sic Semper Tyrannis after shouting President Lincoln? (JOHN WILKES) BOOTH

10) Toss-Up: Indentify the common bond: in, super, sub. PREPOSITIONS WHICH CAN TAKE HE ACCUSATIVE OR ABLATIVE CASES
Bonus: What does sub taking the accusative case mean? UNDER, UP TO, TO THE FOOT OF

11) Toss-Up: In which direction would you travel from Rome to get to Egypt? SOUTHEAST
Bonus: In which direction would you travel to get from Egypt to Asia Minor? NORTH

12) Toss-Up: In what tense is a word ending -iet? FUTURE
Bonus: What tense is marked by -era + endings? PLUPERFECT

13) Toss-Up: Who was the greatest Greek warrior in the Trojan War and name his Trojan counterpart? ACHILLES and HECTOR
Bonus: With whom did Achilles quarrel in Homer's Iliad, thus causing him to sulk in his ent? AGAMEMNON

14) Toss-Up: What title was bestowed upon Octavian in 27BC and what does it mean? AUGUSTUS - "HALLOWED" or "VENERATED"
Bonus: What was the period of peace and prosperity during Augustus' reign called? PAX ROMANA or PAX AUGUSTA

15) Toss-Up: Why was it particularly dangerous to live in an insula in ancient Rome? FIRE OR COLLAPSE WERE COMMON
Bonus: Why was it often unpleasant to walk close by insulae in ancient Rome? PEOPLE EMPTYING CHAMBER POTS OUT OF WINDOWS

16) Toss-Up: Who was the author of the work containing Arachne being changed into a spider, Narcissus being changed into a flower, and Julius Caesar being changed into a shooting star? OVID
Bonus: Who was the author of an early history of Rome describing the rape of the Sabine women? LIVY

17) Toss-Up: Who was the god of trade, travelers, commerce, manual skill, oratory, eloquence, hieves, and of the wind, which he used to convey the messages of the gods? HERMES or MERCURY
Bonus: What other job did Hermes have after the death of mortals? LEADING THE SOUL TO THE UNDERWORLD

18) Toss-Up: What is the equivalent for the Roman numeral DLIX? 559
Bonus: Give the number 1748 in Roman numerals. MDCCXLVIII

19) Toss-Up: The Chimaera is made up of what three beasts and what parts do they represent? GOAT - BODY and LION - HEAD and DRAGON/SERPENT - TAIL
Bonus: Who killed the Chimaera? BELLEROPHON

20) Toss-Up: What Roman hero single-handedly hold off the advancing Etruscan army until the Romans could make it safely across the Tiber River? HORATIUS (COCLES)
Bonus: What bridge did they have to cross and destroy to thwart the Etruscans? PONS SUBLICIUS


1) Toss-Up: What young lovers had to communicate through a crack in the wall because their parents forbade them to see each other? PYRAMUS AND THISBE
Bonus: The bloody death of this couple is the reason for today's red color or what previously white berry? MULBERRY

2) Toss-Up: Besides a conjunction, et can be an adverb. How is it translated as an adverb? ALSO, EVEN or TOO
Bonus: What famous quote from Julius Caesar aptly illustrates this usage? ET TU, BRUTE?

3) Toss-Up: Identify the common bond: Campus Martius, Subura, Forum. SECTIONS OF THE CITY OF ROME
Bonus: In which section above was the Pantheon located? CAMPUS MARTIUS

4) Toss-Up: Who were the first and last emperors of Rome in the West? AUGUSTUS and ROMULUS AUGUSTULUS
Bonus: n what year did the Western Roman empire fall? AD 476

5) Toss-Up: For what unspeakable act did the primordial giants pile Mt. Ossa and Mt. Pelion on Mt. Olympus? IN ORDER TO REACH AND ATTACK HE GODS
Bonus: These giants sprung from whose blood as it fell upon the earth? CRONUS or SATURN

6) Toss-Up: Give the principal parts of the root verb from which we derive the English noun "permission". MITTO, MITTERE, MISI, MISSUM
Bonus: Give the principal parts of the root verb from which we derive "reaction". AGO, AGERE, EGI, ACTUM

7) Toss-Up: Conjugate the verb ago, agere, egi, actum in the future tense. AGAM, AGES, AGET, AGEMUS, AGETIS, AGENT
Bonus: Conjugate the verb "to go" in the future tense. IBO, IBIS, IBIT, IBIMUS, IBITIS, Bonus: What about Euntes Domum, Iterum? "HOMEWARD BOUND 2"