Sponsored by the Maryland Senior Classical League


Please listen to the following passage. I will read it three times. The first four questions will concern this passage. You must answer the questions in English. Here is the passage:

Vacca magna et porca magna sunt amicae bonae. Simul currunt, ambulant, et ludunt. Sed, uno die, vacca magna est irata quod porca magna cenam eius edidit. Nunc, vacca magna et porca magna non sunt amicae bonae. Sunt hostes ad infinitum. (READ THREE TIMES)

1. Who are the two characters in this story? (BIG) COW AND (BIG) PIG
          Bonus A: What is one English derivative from magna? MAGNIFICENT, MAGNANIMOUS, etc
          Bonus B: What is one English derivative from vacca? VACCINE

2. Name one thing that the cow and the pig did together in times of happiness? RAN, WALKED, or PLAYED
          Bonus A: Change ambulant to the singular. AMBULAT
          Bonus B: Change currunt to the 1st person plural. CURRIMUS

3. Why is the cow angry with the pig? BECAUSE THE PIG ATE HIS (THE COW'S) DINNER
          Bonus A: What part of speech is irata? AN ADJECTIVE
          Bonus B: Change irata to the masculine accusative plural. IRATOS

4. For how long will the cow and the pig be enemies? FOREVER
          Bonus A: What case is infinitum? ACCUSATIVE
          Bonus B: How would the Romans have written the phrase "ad infinitum" were it to mean "from infinity" instead of "towards infinity"? AB INFINITO

5. The answers to each of the following toss-up questions will begin with a successive letter of the Roman alphabet. For example, this answer to this toss-up will begin with A, the next with B, the next with C, and so on. Here we go. Julius Caesar said this upon crossing the Rubicon River. ALEA IACTA EST.
          Bonus A: What does that Latin phrase mean? THE DIE IS CAST
          Bonus B: Julius Caesar may have hoped for this, which involved a procession through Rome and was often given to victorious generals. A TRIUMPH

6. What is the Latin adjective that means "good"? BONUS or BONA or BONUM
          Bonus A: What is the neuter plural form of bonus? BONA
          Bonus B: What is the opposite of bonus, in Latin? MALUS

7. In what room of the Roman house did cooking take place? CULINA
          Bonus A: In what room of the Roman house was there a pool in the floor? ATRIUM
          Bonus B: What was this pool called? IMPLUVIUM

8. Who am I? I am a Carthaginian queen who fell deeply in love with the hero Aeneas when he came to visit my land. My evil brother Pygmalion killed my beloved husband Sychaeus. DIDO
          Bonus A: Because Aeneas left her, Dido cursed him and all his ancestors, leading to what three wars that Carthage fought against Rome? PUNIC WARS
          Bonus B: What sea separated Carthage from Rome? MEDITERRANEAN SEA

9. According to Greek and Roman concepts of the Underworld, sinners went to Tartarus while exceptionally good people went to what area? ELYSIUM / ELYSIAN FIELDS
          Bonus A: Who ferried the dead across the River Styx? CHARON
          Bonus B: What did some Romans put into the mouths of the dead in order to ensure their passage across the River Styx? A COIN

10. Translate only the noun in this sentence into Latin: "He opens the window." FENESTRAM
          Bonus A: What wonderful English word refers to the throwing of someone out a window? DEFENESTRATION
          Bonus B: Say in Latin, "out of the windows." EX FENESTRIS

11. Please complete this analogy. Hibernia is to Ireland as _____ is to Germany. GERMANIA
          Bonus A: What is the Latin name for the continent of Europe? EUROPA
          Bonus B: Say in Latin, Germany is in Europe but is not in Africa. GERMANIA EST IN EUROPA SED NON EST IN AFRICA.

12. What protective structure, built by a famous bearded emperor, spans the border between England and Scotland? HADRIAN'S WALL
          Bonus A: The emperor Hadrian was also responsible for rebuilding what domed structure in Rome? THE PANTHEON
          Bonus B: In what century did Hadrian rule? 3rd CENTURY A.D.

13. Hopefully you had a nice big breakfast before you came to the Certamen this morning. What is the Latin word that means breakfast? IENTACULUM
          Bonus A: What is the Latin word for lunch? PRANDIUM
          Bonus B: What is the Latin word for dessert? SECUNDA MENSA

14. Who is the Roman god of beginnings and endings? JANUS
          Bonus A: Give an English derivative from that god's name. JANUARY
          Bonus B: Why is it appropriate that January comes from Janus? BECAUSE JANUARY IS THE BEGINNING OF A NEW YEAR

15. We shall skip "K" and move on to "L." During what event would a young boy receive the manly toga, the toga virilis? LIBERALIA
          Bonus A: What was the head of a Roman household called, in Latin? PATERFAMILIAS
          Bonus B: What is the Latin name for a grandfather? AVUS

16. Give the Latin noun and its English meaning from which we derive our English word "intramural." MURUS MEANING WALL
          Bonus A: Give the Latin word and its English meaning from which we derive our English word "concurrent." CURRO, CURRERE MEANING TO RUN
          Bonus B: Give the Latin word and its English meaning from which we derive our English word "cibation." CIBUS MEANING FOOD

17. Quis sum? Sum deus Romanus marium et aquarum. NEPTUNE
          Bonus A: Who was the wife of Neptune? AMPHITRYTE
          Bonus B: What god, who was under the control of Neptune, was in charge of the winds? AEOLUS

18. Complete this analogy foot is to pes as eye is to _____. OCULUS
          Bonus A: Try this one eye is to oculus as head is to _____. CAPUT
          Bonus B: Now try this one head is to caput as heart is to _____. COR

19. What Greek mathematician had a great influence on trigonometry, even developing a special theorem regarding triangles? PYTHAGORAS
          Bonus A: Which Greek mathematician is known as the father of geometry? EUCLID
          Bonus B: Which Greek scientist was an expert in medical science? Even today, doctors take an oath named after him. HIPPOCRATES

20. Which members of the Roman Republican government were responsible for keeping the public entertained with gladiator contests and the like? QUAESTORS
          Bonus A: What is the name for the progression of offices in the Roman Republic? CURSUS HONORUM
          Bonus B: In what case is the word "honorum"? GENITIVE