2000 Ad Fontes Certamen
Level III - Round One

1. We love participles. And when we ask a participle question, we like to hear things like it's tense (present, perfect, future) and its voice (active or passive). Keeping that in mind, from what form of the participle does our English word Orient derive? Present active.

Bonus:What is the verb and meaning from which Orient derives? Orior (oriri, ortus sum) to rise.

2. What great general of Rome, a relative of Julius Caesar, won important victories over dangerous Germanic tribes invading Italy from the north in 102 and 101 B.C. Marius.

Bonus:Name one of the tribes defeated by Marius in these campaigns. Cimbri, Tuetones.

3. What number is missing from the following seqence: tres, sex, duodecim? Novem.

Bonus:What number is missing from this sequence? centum, ducenti, quadringenti, quingenti? Trecenti.

4. Who forced Albinus and his Roman army to walk under the yoke in 110 B.C., but lived to regret it when Marius captured him four years later? Jugurtha.

Bonus:Another enemy of Rome forced an Roman army under the yoke two centuries earlier after surrounding the army in a valley in the hills north of Capua. Who were these enemies? Samnites.

5. Medea gave a magic potion to Jason to protect him from harm. At what deity's shrine did they meet? Hecate.

Bonus: What Argonaut, a nephew o Medea, led Jason there? Argus.

6. What people of Italy, other than the Romans, wore the toga? The Etruscans.

Bonus:Name the famous Etruscan city, a day's journey west of Rome, where the sacred objects of Rome were taken during the Gallic siege. Caere.

7. What use of the ablative is seen in the following sentence: Puto hanc puellam pulchriorem esse illa. Ablative of comparison.

Bonus: That sentence said "I think this girl is prettier than that one". If we changed puellam to templum, what would happen to pulchriorem? It would change to pulchrius.

8. Jealous gods were always dangerous. What other god paid the price of Boreas' jealousy by accidentally killing a friend during a game of discus throwing? Apollo.

Bonus: Apollo's friend was then transformed into a flower. What was his name? Hyacinthus.

9. What is the meaning of the Latin idiom pedem referre? To retreat.

Bonus: What is the meaning of the Latin idiom opem ferre? To bring aid.

10. In 197 B.C., at the Battle of Cynoscephalae [kie no skef a lee], the Romans defeated the Macedonian phalanx and forever put an end to Macedon's dreams of controlling Greece. What Macedonian king was defeated in this battle? Philip (V).

Bonus: The following year, the Romans surprised everyone by declaring their intention to evacuate Greece and restore freedom to the individual Greek cities and states. This famous Proclamation of the Freedom of the Greeks was delivered at the Isthmian games of 196 B.C. at what strategically located city? Corinth.

11. Achilles was famous for sulking in his tent while the Greeks were being defeated by the Trojans. An embassy from his fellow Greeks tried to persuade him to return to the fray, but failed. What usually very persuasive speaker failed to budge him? Odysseus (Ulysses).

Bonus: Who spoke last in the embassy, and most effectively, ignoring Achilles and telling Odysseus, "we are wasting our time on a man who wishes to injure his own friends"? Ajax.

12. Present participles in Latin sometimes took on a life of their own and became full blown nouns. What present participle, from the Latin verb "to creep," became a noun meaning "snake"? Serpens.

Bonus:From what verb did serpens derive? Serpo (-ere, serpsi).

13. Where am I? I'm looking south towards the port city of Piraeus, to me rear is the Parthenon, I'm standing on the Acropolis. Athens.

Bonus:Now I'm in a large city, looking out over the ocean. I see Pharos close by, and the famous Museum is to my rear, where great scholars work. Alexandria.
14. How does Latin introduce a positive purpose clause? Ut.

Bonus:How does Lati introduce a negative result clause? Ut . . . non.

15. Each Cyclops had a single eye, but who were those poor old sisters who had to share a single eye among them? The Graiae.

Bonus: What other body part did each of the Graiae have only one of? Tooth.

16. A great scholar during the empire wrote an enormous encyclopedia before his death during rescue operations near Vesuvius. Who was he? Pliny the Elder.

Bonus: Pliny the Elder also wrote a history of recent wars the Romans had conducted. What wars did this lost history describe? The German Wars.

17. Gotta love those participles! Translate the participle form in the following sentence: "I am about to see this movie". Visurus, -a.

Bonus: What tense makes use of this future active participle? Future active periphrastic.

18. The name of the months are nouns in English. What part of speech are they in Latin? Adjectives.

Bonus: The words "yesterday," "today," and "tomorrow" are adverbs in English. What part of speech are they in Latin? Adverbs.

19. To avenge the assassination of his adopted father, Octavian vowed a temple to what god in 42 B.C., which he built many years later. Mars (Ultor).

Bonus: If Mars were a woman, we wouldn't say Mars Ultor but rather Mars . . . what? Ultrix.

20. The entire 5th declension has only 3 or 4 words in common use. Give me the nominative and genitive singular of the 5th declension noun used in many idioms such as "grain," "deeds," "revolution," and "republic"? Res, -ei.

Bonus:So how do you say "deeds" in Latin, using a form of res? Res Gestae.