2002 Ad Fontes Certamen
Level I - Round Three

1. Who am I? I was a fierce warrior and in single combat defeated many Greeks. But I was bested by Achilles, who dragged my dead body around the walls of Troy. Hector.
Bonus: Who was the father of Hector, who successfully pleaded for the return of his son's body for burial? Priam.

2. Give the imperfect active indicative first person plural of duco. Ducebamus.
Bonus: Keeping everything else the same, change that to the present. Ducimus.

3. This certamen is on the 16th of February. What day of February would have been the Ides? The 13th.
Bonus: In 4 months the Ides falls on the 15th, as the famous Ides of March. Besides March, name another month when the Ides was the 15th. May / July / October.

4. When a person died in Rome, what was done for him to ensure his passage into the Underworld? Coins on the eyes / in the mouth.
Bonus: Yes, he had to pay the ferryman, Charon, for his passage. What was the river he was ferried across? Styx.

5. "Procrastinate" is a famous certamen word, since it contains three Latin words. Using you knowledge of Latin, tell me quite precisely what "procrastinate" means. To hold for tomorrow (or something pretty close).
Bonus: Someone who studies Latin knows the true meanings of words. What is the true meaning of an "amateur"? Lover.

6. I assume many of you saw the movie "Gladiator". The protaganist, Maximus, was often called a "great man"; but what should they have called him? The greatest.
Bonus: Maybe her wasn't the greatest; maybe he was just "greater". How would be express that in Latin? Maior.

7. Make sunt imperfect. Erant.
Bonus: Now future: Erunt.

8. Aside from senators, who else might wear the toga praetexta? Boys.
Bonus: What toga did a boy assume on manhood? Toga virilis.

9. What is the name for the Latin part of speech that "attaches" itself to other words? Enclitic.
Bonus: Translate the sentence: Viri feminaeque liberos exspectabant. The men and women are awaiting the children.

11. Don't use numerals, just say 1000 in Latin. Mille.
Bonus: Now say this year, 2002, in Latin. Duo milia (et) duo.

12. What famous Roman proposed in 133 B.C to distribute illegally occupied public land to the poor, and was killed for his efforts? (Tiberius) Gracchus.
Bonus: What office did Gracchus hold. Tribune (of the plebs).

13. What two cases always share the same ending in the plural? Dat. & Abl.
Bonus: What cases always look alike in the neuter. Nom. & Acc.

14. Who was this blind poet, the author of the first work of Greek literature? Homer.
Bonus: Name the two works of Homer. Illiad and Odyssey.

15. Which of these ablative uses will never take a preposition? Motion from, accompainment, manner, means, or personal agent? Means.
Bonus: The ablative of accompaniment is not to be confused with the ablative of means. Translate the ablative of means in the sentence: "The men fight with swords." Gladiis.

16. Which king allegedly created the religious institutions of Rome? Numa (Pompilius).
Bonus: Rome was founded on the Palantine. But where did Remus, Romulus' brother, want to found it? Aventine.

17. In Latin and English, what do the initials S.P.Q.R. mean? Senatus populusque Romanus / The Senate and the People of Rome.
Bonus: Now what does the abbreviation i.e. stand for in Latin in English? Id est; that is.

18. It's the first of the month . . .The Kalends.
Bonus: This day is either the 5th or the 7th. The Nones.

19. What outstanding musician followed his wife to the Underworld and successfully pled for her to be allowed to accompany back to the world of the living? Orpheus.
Bonus: Eurydice was her name, and she never actually made it out of the Underworld. What happened? Orpheus looked back.

20. Give the Latin noun at the root of our word "ignition". Ignis.
Bonus: Give the Latin adjective at the root of our word "acceleration". Celer.