2002 Ad Fontes Certamen
Level I - Round I

1. This past Thursday was a special day for lovers, the day of St. Valentine. What is the verb “to love” in Latin? amo, amare (accept either)
Bonus: Amor vincit omnia - love conquers all - is a famous phrase. But I like this one: amor vivit semper. What does that mean? Love lives forever (always).

2. Venus, the Roman goddess of love, was very protective of her son. Who was he? Cupid.
Bonus: Now Venus had another name among the Greeks, and so did her son. What did they call this couple? Aphrodite and Eros.

3. Which one of the following does not belong and why? amor, cupidus, Venus, voluptas. cupidus / second declension.
Bonus: There are many verbs connected with love, and one the base of Cupid’s name. What is the verb for “to desire”? Cupio, cupire (accept either).

4. Who am I? I attempted to ensnare three powerful Romans, and was successful with two. I had a son by the first, before he was foully murdered. The second was defeated at Actium despite the assistance of my navy. Alas, I was unable to woo his conqueror, who wanted to lead me—a queen of Eygpt!—in his triumph. Cleopatra.
Bonus: Who was that third Roman with whom Cleopatra was unsuccessful? Octavian/Augutus.

5. Change amant to the imperfect tense. amabant.
Bonus: Now change that to the passive. amabantur.

6. I was the son of Cephisus and the nymph Liriope. I was stooping down to drink from a stream, when I fell in love with my own reflection. Narcissus.
Bonus: Echo, of course, pined away for me. But who took away from her the ability to speak, leaving only an ability to repeat the words of others? Juno (Hera).

7. Even love has its limits. What Roman emperor caused a great scandal by marrying his niece (forbidden under Roman law). Claudius.
Bonus: What was the name of this niece, the mother of Nero? Agrippina (the Younger).

8. Just as today, parents in the ancient word loved their children and wanted to protect them. What did they put around their necks to ward off evil spirits? Bulla.
Bonus: To protect them on the way to school, who would the parents send with their children? Paedagogus (if “slave” as to be more specific).

9. What was special about the toga candida? It denoted running for office / it was rubbed with chalk to make it white.
Bonus: What material was the toga made from? Wool (lana).

10. Who were Helen of Troy’s twin brothers, sons of Leda who were said to live half their time on earth, half in Heaven? Castor and Pollux.
Bonus: By what Latin word, meaning twins, were these brothers known? Gemini.

11. What famous Thracian led the slave revolt in 73 B.C.? Spartacus.
Bonus: What happened in the end to the slaves who were captured when Spartacus was finally defeated by Crassus? They were crucified (if “executed” ask to be more specific).

12. Using an enclitic particle, say in Latin “the boy and girl”. puer puellaque.
Bonus: Now make that plural. pueri puellaeque.

13. We are the nine daughters of Zeus and Mnemosyne, patron goddesses of the fine arts. The Muses.
Bonus: Which of them was the Muse of epic poetry? Calliope.

14. The First Triumvirate was formed in 60 B.C. to run the affairs of Rome according to the wishes of three men. Who were they? Pompey, Caesar, Crassus.
Bonus: The Second Triumvirate was formed in 43 B.C. with an identifcal purpose. Who were they? Octavian (Augustus), Antony, Lepidus.

15. Translate the following sentence: Puella puerque in villa pugnant. The girl and boy are fighting in the farmhouse (villa).
Bonus: Now make it future in Latin. Puellae puerique in villa pugnabunt.

16. What was the Latin abbreviation for the praenomen Tiberius? Ti.
Bonus: How ‘bout the abbreviation for Gaius? C.

17. Responde Latine. In what room of the Roman house might you find a lectus? Cubiculum / triclinium
Bonus: In what other room of the Roman house would you find one? Cubiculum / triclinium.

18. Complete this analogy: Spain is to Hispania as England is to . . . Britannia.
Bonus: Complete this analogy: France is to Gallia as Switzerland is to . . . Helvetia.

19. What moon of the planet Jupiter was named after a lover of Jupiter who was turned into a cow? Io.
Bonus: What other moon of Jupiter bears the name of the lover whom Juppiter, transformed into a bull and carried away to Crete? Europa.

20. Name, in reverse chronological order, the three kinds of government that Rome had. Empire, Republic, Monarchy.
Bonus: Name the last king of Rome. Tarquinius Superbus / Tarquin the Proud.