2001 Ad Fontes Certamen
Level IV - Finals

1. Welcome to the Upper Level Finals of the Ad Fontes Certamen. Let's start with a little geography. In what region would you find the cities Utica, Cirta, and Zama. Africa.

Bonus1: Where would you find the cities Ilerda, Gades, and Corduba? Spain.

Bonus 2: Where would you find the cities Pergamum, Smyrna, and Ephesus? Asia (Minor).

2. With what great confederation of tribes did Rome fight a long series of war between 340 and 285 B.C. resulting in their conquest of the moutainous interior of Italy? Samnites.

Bonus 1: The Romans were not always successful. What was the name of the area where a Roman army was surrounded by the Samnites in 323 B.C. and forced to surrender? The Caudine Forks.

Bonus 2: When the Samnites wars were over, it wasn't long before the Romans faced a more dangerous antagonist in Southern Italy, who always defeated them but could never win the decisive victory. Who was he? Pyrrhus.

3. Who was the son of Agenor who, following a cow, founded a city where it laid down. Cadmus.

Bonus: What was the city that Cadmus founded? Thebes.

Bonus 2: In what region of Greece was Thebes located? Boeotia.

4. Participles yet again. Listen carefully to this sentence: Ab oppido discessuri videmus hostes advenientes. What are the two tenses of the participles in that sentence? Future and present.

Bonus: 1 Please translate that sentence. We, about to leave the town, saw the enemy arriving.

Bonus 2: Now make everything singular in that sentence. Ab oppido discessurus (-a), video hostis advenientem.

5. Ancient warships weren't much for fighting. What was their standard weapon for sinking an enemy's ship? Ram. Bonus: 1 The Romans improved on this by use of a corvus. What kind of device was this? Boarding plank.

Bonus: 1 Much later the Romans developed a frightening weapon to defend Constantinople against the Arabs, a secret weapon that burned on water and could not be extinguished. What was it called? Greek fire.

6. Being completely alliterative, say in Latin "Kings ruled at Rome". Reges Romae rexerunt/regebant.

Bonus: 1 Now the same for "The boys fought beautiful pigs". Pueri pulchros porcos pugnabant (pugnaverunt).

Bonus 2: Now the same for "Why does Crassus kill the swift stag". Cur Crassus celerem cervum caedit?

7. What is the central event of Book VI of the Aeneid? Aeneas' journey to the Underworld.

Bonus 1: What is the central event of Book V? Games in honor of Anchises.

Bonus 2: What is the central event of Book IV? The romance of Aeneas and Dido / death of Dido.

8. It was certainly tragic, but had the virtue of being quick and often painless. By what means did two great enemies of Rome, Hannibal and Cleopatra, end their lives? Poison.

Bonus 1: Hannibal was handy with snakes, too. By what means did he defeat the Roman fleet off Asia Minor in 190 B.C.? Jars full of vipers were catapulted onto the Roman ships.

Bonus 2: Some of Rome's greatest enemies were not killed in battle, but captured and taken to Rome for execution. Who was the leader of the Gallic revolt of 52-51 who suffered this fate? Vercingetorix.

9. Women never fared well after the fall of a city. To whom was Cassandra given as a concubine? Agamemnon.

Bonus 1: To whom was Hecuba given as a slave? Odysseus.

Bonus 2: To whom was Andromache given? Neoptolemus (Pyrrhus)

10. Here's a word to the wise: Qui a multis timetur, multos timet. What does that mean? He who is feared by many, fears many.

Bonus 1: How Œbout this little nugget of wisdom: Quae sunt maximae divitiae? non desiderare divitias. What is the greatest wealth? Not to desire wealth.

Bonus: 2 Along the same lines: Est difficillimum se ipsum vincere. The most difficult thing is to conquer yourself.

11. Place these coins in order of value, from least to greatest: quadrans, denarius, sestertius. Quadrans, sestertius, denarius

Bonus 1: What was the denarius minted from? Silver.

Bonus 2: What is the literal meaning of quadrans? A fourth part.

12. What early Roman writer, who might have been a freed slave, is well known for his comedy Pseudolus? Plautus.

Bonus 1: Another of Plautus' famous plays is Miles Gloriosus. Translate that title into English. The Braggart Soldier (or variants).

Bonus 2: Plautus was followed by another Roman writer of comedies, more sophisticated and less well known. Who was he? Terence.

13. If you saw a bottle with the abbreviation t.i.d., you might be able to give me the Latin of abbreviation and tell me what it means. Ter in die / 3 times a day.

Bonus1: What kind of number is quater? Numerical adverb.

Bonus 2: Now give me the distributive of this number. Terni.

14. At the Battle of Cynoscephalae (ky no SKEFF a lie) in 197 B.C. T. Quinctius Flamininus utterly defeated what Macedonia king, who shared his name with the father of Alexander the Great? Philip.

Bonus1: Flaminius won that victory because his legions were more flexible than the rigid Macedonian battle formation. What was the Macedonian formation called? Phalanx.

Bonus 2: After ending the war, Flaminius proclaimed the freedom of the Greeks at what Greek city? Corinth.

15. Who resolved the dispute between Zeus and Hera about which gender, men or women, enjoys sex more? Teiresias.

Bonus1: What was Teiresias' answer? Women.

Bonus 2: Why would he know? He had been both man and woman.

16. What do the Latin nouns coma and crinis mean? Hair.

Bonus 1: What is your frons? Forehead.

Bonus 2: What are your supercilia? Eyebrows.

17. In what Roman province would you find the city Alesia? Gaul.

Bonus 1: In what province would you find Munda? Spain.

Bonus 2: Where would you find Thapsus? Africa.

18. What general took over the command against Mithridates by the lex Manilia? Pompey.

Bonus 1: From whom did he take it over? Lucullus.

Bonus 2: What handsome Roman youth had led the mutiny against Lucullus as prelude to the loss of his command? P. Clodius Pulcher.

19. Why is humus an unusual noun? It takes the locative / it's feminine.

Bonus 1: How else is humus unusual? [Whatever they did say above].

Bonus 2: What other large category of 2nd declension nouns are feminine? The names of trees.

20. When recognized, perform the following command: Sta et primam partem fabulae de tribus porcis parvis mihi narra.

Bonus 1: Now perform this command: Sta et primam partem fabulae de Nivea et septem homunculis narra mihi.

Bonus 2: Now perform this command: Sta et narra mihi primam partem fabulae de Auricoma et tribus ursis.