2001 Ad Fontes Certamen
Level II - Final Round

1. Congratulations on making it to the final round of this certamen. Please say "of this certamen" in Latin. Huius certaminis.

Bonus 1:Please make those same words genitive plural. Horum certaminum.

Bonus 2:Now make those words accusative plural. haec certamina

2. Who was placed among the stars at her death, a constellation in the Northern Hemisphere along with her husband Perseus? Andromeda.

Bonus 1:What did Perseus do in order to gain Andromeda's hand in marriage? He killed a sea monster to which Andromeda was supposed to be sacrificed.

Bonus 2:As a result of whose boasting had the sea monster for which Andromeda was supposed to be a sacrifice been sent? Cassiopeia's (ask to be more specific if they say "her mother's").

3. Near what extensive second century AD construction does one find Vindolanda, a Roman camp in Britain? Hadrian's wall.

Bonus 1:What emperor (known for erecting a famous column in Rome) did Hadrian succeed? Trajan.

Bonus 2:What emperor succeeded Hadrian and earned his title acknowledging filial devotion by securing the deification of his adoptive father? Antoninus Pius.

4. Normally comprising between 4000 and 6000 men, what was the largest division of the Roman army during the late Republic? Legion.

Bonus 1:Into how many cohorts was a legion divided? 10.

Bonus 2:Into how many centuries was a cohort divided? 6.

5. Which of the following adjectives is not in the superlative degree: optimus, primus, similis, celerrimus? Similis

Bonus 1:Give the superlative of similis. simillimus(/a).

Bonus 2:Give the superlative of nobilis. nobilissimus(/a).

6. Give the principal parts of the verb used as the passive of facio, facere, feci factum. fio, fieri, factus sum.

Bonus 1:Give the third person plural future indicative of fio. fient.

Bonus 2:Now change that to imperfect subjunctive. fierent.

7. In one of his poems, Catullus mentions a swift-legged girl and a golden apple. To what mythical maiden does this refer? Atalanta.

Bonus 1:Who threw the golden apple to distract Atalanta? Hippomenes / Melanion.

Bonus 2:What happened when Hippomenes and Atalanta failed to show proper respect to a temple when they were on a hunt? They were turned into lions.

8. In the late 4th century A.D., the emperor Theodosius put a stop to what games, which had begun in 776 B.C.? The Olympic Games.

Bonus 1:The original contest in the Olympics was the stadion. What was the stadion? A sprint of 200 meters.

Bonus 2:What was the original prize awarded in the Olympic games? An olive wreath.

9. Theodosius stopped the Olympic games in A.D. 393, but what earlier emperor, often said to be the first Christian emperor, had put an end to gladiatorial combats because they were too bloodthirsty? Constantine.

Bonus 1:What famous battle in A.D. 312 established Constantine's supremacy? The Battle of Mulvian Bridge.

Bonus 2:What sign with what Latin words did Constantine claim to have seen prior to this battle? A cross, in hoc signo vinces.

10. What is the meaning of the verb form vis? You wish, want, are willing

Bonus 1:What is the meaning of the noun vis? Force, amount, might, violence, etc.

Bonus 2:Give the nominative plural of vis and its meaning. Vires, strength, resources, troops.

11. October 13th, 54 B.C. marked the death of what stuttering emperor whose greatest achievement had been the conquest of Britain ten years earlier? Claudius.

Bonus 1:Some say that Claudius' wife poisoned him in order to make room for her son to come to the throne. Who was this son? Nero.

Bonus 2:Claudius died before his own son reached manhood, and thus his adopted son Nero became emperor. Who was this natural son, named after his father's territorial conquests, who died shortly after Nero began to rule? Britannicus.

12. What many headed, serpentine child of Gaia rebelled against Zeus and defeated him when the two at first fought hand to hand? Typhon/Typhaeus.

Bonus 1:What weapon did Zeus us the second time to defeat Typhon? Thunderbolts.

Bonus 2:What horrible wife of Typhon produced monsters such as the hydra, the sphinx, and the chimera? Echidna.

13. My Introduction to Latin students were learning colors recently and came across the sentence "Tecta sunt rubra." Why were Roman roofs often red? Because the tiles were made of red clay.

Bonus 1:Travertine was a fine building stone, but it became less prominent during the reign of Augustus. What building material replaced travertine? Marble.

Bonus 2:Opus caementicium consists of hydraulic mortar laid in alternate courses with aggregate, and it allows for the construction of vaulted chambers on a large scale. What is its more common name. Concrete.

14. A cum clause indicating cause or circumstance will usually require a verb in what mood? Subjunctive.

Bonus 1:Put mitto, mittere, misi, missum in the 1st person plural present subjunctive. mittamus.

Bonus 2:Translate the independent subjunctive mittamus. Let us send.

15. Translate into English: Romam quam Athenas ire malumus. We prefer to go to Rome rather than to Athens/we want to go to Rome more than to Athens.

Bonus 1:Say in Latin, "We do not wish to live in Athens." Athenis habitare nolumus.

Bonus 2:Malo and nolo are both contractions of volo and an adverb. What are the two adverbs and their meanings? magis-more, non-not.

16. Who was the first enemy of the Romans to introduce them to elephants? Pyrrhus.

Bonus 1:What was the name of his kingdom? Epirus.

Bonus 2:Pyrrhus is the eponym of our expression "Pyrrhic victory." What is a Pyrrhic victory? A victory with staggering losses.

17. Quam is a versatile word in Latin. It can be a pronoun or an adverb with several meanings. What does quam indicate when it is used in conjunction with a superlative? As ... as possible.

Bonus 1:What does quam most likely mean when used with a comparative? Than.

Bonus 2:When comparing words, in what three cases must one use quam rather than the ablative of comparison? Genitive, dative, and ablative.

18. What witch turned many of Odysseus's men into swine before he frightened her into restoring them to human form? Circe.

Bonus 1:What god warned Odysseus of Circe's wiles before he entered her palace? Hermes/Mercury.

Bonus 2:Before Odysseus left her island, Circe warned him to avoid what monstrous pair? Scylla and Charybdis.

19. The acanthus plant appears atop columns of what order? Corinthian.

Bonus 1:What Classical style does the Parthenon exhibit? Doric.

Bonus 2:If an Ionic column is fluted, what does fluted mean? Decorated with grooves.

20. When recognized, perform the following command. Te sedente in mensO scriptoriO, dic Anglice "Finis." The student should sit on a desk and say "The End."­Accept just end, or limit, boundary, etc.

Bonus 1:Omnibus stantibus, ponite manus super auribus. Everyone should be standing and place hands over ears.

Bonus 2:What type of phrase is omnibus stantibus? An ablative absolute.