2001 Ad Fontes Certamen
Level II - Round One

1. Hamilcar Barca expanded Carthage's empire by conquering parts of Spain. He also fathered one of the greatest generals the world has seen. Who was this Carthaginian general? Hannibal

Bonus: Whose war tactic of encirclement did Scipio Africanus adopt to defeat Hannibal at Zama? Hannibal's

2. Which of the following is not a deponent verb: conor, hortor, amor, and moror? amor
Bonus:What is deponent verb? a verb that looks passive but translates active

3. Quot annos Graeci Troiam obsidebant? Decem

Bonus: What case was your answer and for what reason? Accusative of extent of time (if they say that it is accusative because it agrees with annos, ask them the function of annos).

4. What hero captured Pegasus at Corinth and later killed the Chimera? Bellerophon

Bonus: How did Bellerophon die? He was flung off Pegasus while trying to fly to Mt. Olympus

5. Romans thought that eating butter was barbaric. What did they use instead? Olive oil

Bonus: What, in Latin and English, did Romans use to sweeten foods? mel-honey

6. The decisive battle between Pompey and Caesar occurred at Pharsalus in 48 B.C. After his defeat, Pompey fled to Alexandria. How was he received there? He was killed (by order of Pompey).

Bonus: Whom did Caesar attempt to reinstate on the throne of Egypt after he pursued Pompey to Alexandria? Cleopatra

7. What is remarkable about the Ides in March, May, July, and October? They fall on the 15th rather than the 13th

Bonus: When does the Kalends fall in those months? the 1st

8. What minor god gave a present to Odysseus that ended up hurting him when his men opened it without authorization and let all the winds escape? Aeolus

Bonus: What goddess, still angry at Aeneas and the Trojans, asks Aeolus to shipwreck them when they are attempting to sail from Sicily to Italy? Juno

9. Give the Roman numeral for the year in which Julius Caesar was assassinated. XLIV.

Bonus: Give the Roman numeral for the year in which Julius Caesar became Pontifex Maximus, Cicero as consul exposed the Catalinarian conspiracy, and Augustus was born. LXIII

10. Participles share the functions of what two parts of speech? Verbs and adjectives.

Bonus: Give the translation of the participle in the following sentence: Loving grammar, the students were eager to answer the question. Amantes.

11. D.V. is an old abbreviation that used to be used on invitations and other such things to indicate that the plan would come to pass only if circumstances beyond the planner's control allowed. Give the literal meaning of Deo volente. With God being willing (or equivalent).

Bonus : What part of speech is volente? Be specific. Present active participle.

12. When a man became consul without having a distinguished family he was referred to as a "new man." What is this expression in Latin? Novus homo.

Bonus: How long was a consul in office? One year.

13. The only year that Cicero (one such "novus homo") was consul was 63 B.C. Whose conspiracy did he put down at that time? Cataline's.

Bonus: What future emperor was born during this year? Augustus.

14. There is a story in the Bible about two missionaries, Paul and Barnabas, who perform a miracle in Phrygia. The people of the town immediately conclude that these two men are Zeus and Hermes, and they want to show their devotion by offering sacrifices. The people were probably remembering the story of the punishment that had befallen a town that failed to extend hospitality to these two gods and wanted to avoid that for themselves. What was that punishment? The town was turned into a swamp/the people drowned.

Bonus: Who were the elderly couple who escaped punishment, and what was their reward? Baucis and Philemon (who became guards of a temple and) turned into intertwining trees.

15. Who in Rome wore the toga picta? Victorious generals.

Bonus: What color was this toga? Purple.

16. Latin students must often learn the special declension of the two nouns mare and animal. What is the grammatical designation of these two words? Third declension, neuter, I-stems.

Bonus: Decline mare completely. mare, maris, mari, mare, mari, maria, marium, maribus, maria, maribus.

17. What is the modern equivalent of a praetor? Judge.

Bonus: What about a quaestor? Treasurer (or equivalent).

18. Who had to go on pushing a rock up a hill ad infinitum in Hades? Sisyphus

Bonus:For what crime was he being punished? Cheating death (by not returning to the Underworld).

19. Quis sum? Sum filia deae antiquae. Ambulabam in campis, ubi frater meae matris me cepit et me ad infernos duxit. Prosperpina / Persephone.

Bonus: Quis erat frater matris Proserpinae, qui puellam cepit? Pluto.

20. Quot sunt bis decem? Viginti.

Bonus: Quot sunt quinquaginta minus viginti quinque plus tres? Duodetriginta.