2001 Ad Fontes Certamen
Level I - Final Round

1. Horses, dolphins, and the trident are associated with which god? Neptune / Poseidon

Bonus 1: What gift that was refused did Neptune offer to Athens? A saltwater spring

Bonus 2: What gift that was accepted did Athena offer? The olive tree

2. When Caesar defeated Pharnaces in one day at the Battle of Zela in 47 B.C., he made a famous statement of only three words. Give the Latin and English of this famous quotation. Veni, vidi, vici­I came, I saw, I conquered

Bonus 1: Make Caesar's original phrase 3rd person plural. Venerunt, viderunt, vicerunt

Bonus2: Give Caesar's original phrase in the future tense. Veniam, videbo, vincam

3. What famous dictator was in his fields plowing when he found that he had been appointed to save Rome from the enemy? Cincinnatus

Bonus 1: After Cincinnatus rescued the Roman army, he forced the enemy to surrender and made them undergo what humiliating Italic custom? Walking under the yoke/subjugation

Bonus 2: How long was Cincinnatus dictator before he returned to his farm? 16 days

4. Roman baths were very popular, and there was much more to going to the baths than just getting clean. For instance, what would Romans often do in the palaestra at the baths? Exercise

Bonus 1: What was the name for the heating system of pipes under floors and behind walls? hypocausts

Bonus 2: What was the name of the hot room? caldarium

5. Another name for the dictator in early Roman times was magister populi. What does that phrase mean? Master of the people

Bonus 1: Every dictator appointed an assistant called the magister equitum. What does that mean? Master of the horse/cavalry

Bonus 2: What types of genitives are seen in these phrases? Objective genitive
6. When Julius Caesar was given a perpetual dictatorship in February of 44 B.C. he probably expected that he would hold this office for years to come. How long did he actually hold it? About one month

Bonus 1: When Julius Caesar had functioned as dictator in 48 and 47 B.C., he sent his magister equitum to calm things down in Italy. This man is the one we usually think of as Caesar's right hand and was the Lupercus who offered Caesar the diadem in 44 B.C. Who was he? Marcus Antonius / Marc Antony

Bonus 2: A different man became a magister equitum in 44 B.C., while Antony was appointed flamen. The two men were later mortal enemies. Who was this magister equitum? Octavian

7. The historian Plutarch tells us that Marc Antony sometimes wore a large, coarse mantle, perhaps resembling a lion skin, because he fancied himself to be a descendant of what ancient hero? Hercules/Heracles

Bonus 1:How did Hercules kill the Nemean lion? He strangled it

Bonus 2: For what king did Hercules perform his famous labors? Eurystheus

8. On what finger did a Roman woman wear her wedding ring? Ring finger of the left hand.

Bonus 1: What color was a bridal veil? Saffron/yellow/orange/flame-colored.

Bonus 2: What was the favorite month for Roman weddings? June

9. What type of ablative is used in the following sentence: Milites magna audacia pugnant? Ablative of manner.

Bonus 1: Translate the following sentence into Latin: Soldiers fight with swords. Viri gladiis pugnant.

Bonus 2: What type of ablative is used in that sentence? Means

10. "Alea iacta est" has come into use as an expression that signifies a choice that cannot be undone. From what historical event does this phrase come? Julius Caesar said it when he crossed the Rubicon.

Bonus 1: What did Caesar's crossing of the Rubicon signify? that he was declaring war

Bonus 2: What was the date of that famous event? January 10, 49 B.C.
11. Explain the distinction in meaning between hostis and inimicus. hostis is a public enemy; inimicus is a personal enemy.

Bonus 1: Say in Latin: "Marcus is unfriendly to Gaius." Marcus Gaio inimicus est.

Bonus 2: Say in Latin: "Our men do not fear the enemy." Nostri hostes non timent.

12. What famous wedding was interrupted when Eris threw the Apple of Discord? The wedding of Peleus and Thetis.

Bonus 1: What did this apple say, to whom was it awarded, and by whom? To/For the Fairest, Aphrodite/Venus, Paris

Bonus 2: Who was the most famous son of Peleus and Thetis? Achilles

13. What case would "for the fairest" require in Latin? Dative

Bonus 1: Translate into Latin: "The boy was giving grain to the horse." Puer equo frumentum dabat.

Bonus 2: Translate into Latin: "The man carried grain to the horse." Puer frumentum ad equum portavit.

14. Rome had an elaborate system of patronage. Early in the morning, clients would assemble at the home of their patron to greet him. In what room of the Roman house did this ceremony occur? atrium

Bonus 1: What was this morning ritual called? Salutatio

Bonus 2: The clients provided political support to the patron, and the patron provide jobs and even gifts of food. What was the name of the little basket in which those gifts were given? Sportula

15. The word fuerint can be third person plural perfect subjunctive. What other form can it be? Third person plural future perfect indicative

Bonus 1: Change this form to the present indicative. sunt

Bonus 2: In what tense and voice does sunt appear as a helping verb. perfect passive

16. Who was the last king of Troy? Priam

Bonus 1: What son of Achilles killed him? Pyrrhus/Neoptolemus

Bonus 2: What daughter-in-law of Priam, widow of Hector, did Pyrrhus take as a concubine? Andromache

17. The Germans used to call their leader kaiser, the Russians tsar. From what famous Roman did these titles derive? Julius Caesar

Bonus 1: What two men lead the conspiracy against Caesar? Brutus and Cassius

Bonus 2: According to Shakespeare, Caesar's last words were Et tu, Brute, but according to Roman historians, they were actually in Greek. What were his words and their meaning? kai su, teknon­and you, child

18. In English we have the handy word "itinerary" that refers to the propose route or schedule of a trip. From what Latin word with what English meaning does this word derive? iter, journey/march

Bonus 1: Give the accusative singular of iter. iter

Bonus 2: Give the genitive plural of iter. itinerum

19. Romans were known for being a somewhat bloodthirsty people. This reputation is enhanced by their love of gladiatorial combat. Gladiators didn't start out at entertainers, however, but as performers in religious ceremonies. At what events did gladiatorial combats originally occur? funerals

Bonus 1: What lightly clad gladiator fought with a net and a trident? retiarius

Bonus 2: What gladiator an oblong shield, a short sword, and a fish on the crest of his helmet? murmillo

20. When recognized, perform the following command: Surge et Anglice dic mihi "Ad Fontes." the student should rise and say "to the sources"

Bonus 1: Give the grammatical construction of "Ad Fontes." accusative of place to which

Bonus 2: Decline completely fons, fontis. fons, fontis, fonti, fontem, fonte, fontes, fontium, fontibus, fontes, fontibus