2000 Ad Fontes Certamen
Level II - Round Two

1. Translate the relative pronoun in the following sentence into Latin: I saw the girl who was sitting under the tree. Quae.

Bonus: Translate "who was sitting" from that sentence using only a present active participle. Sedentem.

2. Of potatoes, corn, tomatoes, and onions, which would an ancient Roman have eaten? Onions.

Bonus: Which of the following would a Roman have most readily drunk: oleum, vinum, lac. Vinum.

3. In early Roman history the new year began on March 1st. At that time what was the name of the fifth month? Quintilis.

Bonus: After Julius Caesar reformed the calendar, this month was renamed Iulius. Why was this month chosen to honor Caesar? It was the month of his birth.

4. What Greek god is said to have invented the lyre out of a tortoise shell? Hermes.

Bonus: Who is his son who invented the syrinx or reed pipe. Pan.

5. The subjunctive gets its name because it is often yoked under a main verb. When that main clause contains an adjective or adverb expressing degree, what type of subordinate clause are you most likely to find? A result clause.

Bonus: What words would introduce the result clause in the following sentence: The man in front of me was so tall that I was not able to see. Ut non.

6. A fiat is a decree or order. What is the literal meaning of the Latin word fiat? Let it be done, let it happen.

Bonus: What use of the subjunctive is that? Hortatory/jussive.

7. Put the following four people in chronological order of their deaths: Cicero, Tiberius, Augustus, Antony. Cicero, Antony, Augustus, Tiberius.

Bonus: In what year did Cicero die? 43 B.C.

8. What was the expression used for a man such as Cicero who became consul without having a distinguished family? Novus homo.

Bonus: How long was a censor in office? 18 mos.

9. Who were the Dioscuri? Castor and Pollux/Polydectes.

Bonus: What sign of the zodiac with what meaning do we get from these brothers? Gemini, twins.

10. Using a deponent verb, say in Latin "Marcus is speaking." Marcus loquitur.

Bonus: Using the same two verbs, tell Marcus to speak. Loquere, Marce.

11. Using an ablative absolute, say in Latin, "While Marcus was speaking, Julia listened." Marco loquente, Iulia audivit.

Bonus: Now translate, "While Marcus and Julia were speaking, no one listened." Marco et Iulia loquentibus, nemo audivit.

12. Who was Caesar's nominal co-consul during the consulship of Julius and Caesar? Bibulus

Bonus: Why did Bibulus not often leave his house? He was constantly taking the omens.

13. Give the name for the fish sauce which Romans savored on their food. Garum.

Bonus: Using the verb, aspergo, aspergere, aspersi, aspersum, say in Latin "asparagus sprinkled with garum" Asparagus aspersus garo.

14. What daughter of one of the original Olympians was abducted by her uncle while she was picking flowers in a field? Persephone/Proserpina

Bonus: Zeus did not always have a very respectful view of women, and so you would think that he wouldn't have been too concerned about his brother's actions. He felt the need to intervene for the return of Persephone, however, because what was happening because of Demeter's grief. The crops were failing

15. Translate the adjective in the following sentence: I think that the work of mothers is very hard. Difficillimum.

Bonus: Translate the entire sentence. Puto/opinor laborem matrem difficilimum esse.

16. Dic anglice quid significet verbum"certamen." Contest, struggle.

Bonus: What mood is significet and why? Subjunctive in an indirect question.

17. In our country a complete meal goes from soup to nuts. In ancient Rome, however, what expression with what literal meaning was used to express the same idea. Ab ovo usque ad mala, from the egg to the apples.

Bonus: The egg, of course, was the appetizer and the apples were the dessert. How do you say those words (appetizer and dessert) in Latin. Gustatio/gustatorium, secunda mensa/bellaria.

18. What man in mythology was forever tormented by having food and drink near but out of reach? Tantalus.

Bonus: One common version of his crime is that he attempted to feed his son Pelops to the gods. Who was the only one who ate? Demeter.

19. The Emperor Gaius Julius Caesar Germanicus obtained what better-known nickname because of the little boots he war as a child with his father's troops on the Rhine? Caligula.

Bonus: How did Caligula die? He was assassinated.

20. Sta et dic nomen tuae scholae. The student should give the name of his school

Bonus: The word ludus has two meanings which some people would find rather incongruous. Certamen shows that the two go hand in hand, however. What are these two meanings? School and game, play.