2000 Ad Fontes Certamen
Level 1-Round Three

1. If Caesar had been speaking about his men rather than himself at the Battle of Zela in 47 B.C., what would he have said? Venerunt, viderunt, vicerunt.

Bonus: Whom did Caesar defeat at this battle? Pharnaces.

2. Another name for the dictator in early Roman times was "master of the people." What is that expression in Latin? Magister populi.

Bonus: Translate into Latin: Cincinnatus was made dictator. Cincinnatus dictator factus est (fiebat).

3. When Julius Caesar was appointed dictator in 46. B.C., he was given a term of ten years. How much longer was this than the usual maximum term? Nine and a half years.

Bonus: What famous dictator was in his fields plowing when he found that he had been appointed to save Rome from the enemy? Cincinnatus

4. Every dictator appointed an assistant called the magister equitum. What does that mean? Master of the horse/cavalry.

Bonus: Who was Julius Caesar's magister equitum? Marcus Antonius.

5. Plutarch tells us that Marc Antony sometimes wore a large, coarse mantle, perhaps resembling a lion skin, because he fancied himself to be a descendant of what ancient hero? Hercules.

Bonus: How did Hercules kill the Nemean lion? He clubbed it to death.

6. What type of ablative is used in the following sentence: Feminae magna diligentia laborant? Ablative of manner.

Bonus: Translate the following sentence into Latin: Men work with diligence. Viri cum diligentia laborant.

7. I once heard a story about a woman who whispered "Alea iacta est" after she said "I do" in her wedding ceremony. Why was it strangely appropriate under the circumstances? The phrase marks an event that could not be undone.

Bonus: What was the date of the original famous event? January 10, 49 B.C.

8. Roman baths were very popular, and there was much more to going to the baths than just getting clean. For instance, what would Romans often do in the palaestra at the baths? Exercise.

Bonus: What was the name for the warm room? Tepidarium.

9. Horses, dolphins, and the trident are associated with which god? Neptune/Poseidon.

Bonus: What gift that was refused did Neptune offer to Athens? A saltwater spring.

10. Say in Latin, "I used to be a poet." Poeta eram.

Bonus: Give four other nouns of the same declension and gender as poeta. Pirata, agricola, propheta, incola, nauta, scriba, etc.

11. Explain the distinction in meaning between hostis and inimicus. Hostis is a public enemy; inimicus is a personal enemy.

Bonus:Say in Latin: "Our men do not fear the enemy." Nostri hostes non timent.

12. Tiberius Gracchus, a leader of the populares because of his work in agrarian reform, was not able to obtain a second tribuneship for 132 B.C. Why not? He was murdered by senators.

Bonus: How did Gaius Gracchus die in 121 B.C? He had a slave stab him so that he would not be arrested (accepts committed suicide).

13. On what finger did a Roman woman wear her wedding ring? Ring finger of the left hand.

Bonus: What color was a bridal veil? Saffron / yellow / orange / flame-colored.

14. What famous wedding was interrupted when Eris threw the Apple of Discord? The wedding of Peleus and Thetis.

Bonus: What was written on this apple? For the Fairest.

15. What case would "for the fairest" require in Latin? Dative.

Bonus: Using pulcher, translate that phrase into Latin. Be sure to make it feminine. Pulcherrimae.

16. The word fuerint can be third person plural perfect subjunctive. What other mood can it be? Future perfect indicative.

Bonus: Change this form to the future. Erunt.

17. What political coaltion, though unofficial, began by the cooperation of Crassus, Pompey, and Caesar? The First Triumvirate.

Bonus: Why did the triumvirate dissolve in 53 B.C.? Crassus was killed (in battle against the Parthians).

18. Who was the last king of Troy? Priam.

Bonus: What son of Achilles killed him? Pyrrhus/Neoptolemus.

19. Early in the morning, clients would assemble at the home of their patron to greet him. What was this morning ritual called? Salutatio.

Bonus: The clients provided political support to the patron, and the patron provide jobs and even gifts of food. What was the name of the little basket in which those gifts were given? Sportula.

20. Quis sum? Exspecto dominum viginti annos. Fidelis canis Ulixis sum. Argus.

Bonus: What kind of construction is viginti annos. Accusative of extent/duration of time