2000 Ad Fontes Certamen
Level 1-Round Two

1. Responde Latine: Quot sunt viginti minus octo? Duodecim

Bonus:Spell the Latin word for four. Quattuor

2. Writing certamen questions can be a time-consuming experience. What Latin expression might I use to express, "Time flies." Tempus fugit.

Bonus: Make that expression plural. Tempora fugiunt.

3. Put the following four people in chronological order of their deaths: Cicero, Tiberius, Augustus, Antony. Cicero, Antony, Augustus, Tiberius.

Bonus: In what year did Cicero die? 43 B.C

4. What was the expression used for a man such as Cicero who became consul without having any senatorial ancestors? Novus homo.

Bonus: How long was a consul in office? One year.

5. To which Greek goddess is the Parthenon dedicated? Athena.

Bonus: What gift did Athena give to Athens? The olive tree.

6. Of the verb forms ero, eram, or fuero, which one happened earliest? Eram

Bonus: So we've heard ero, eram, fuero. Keeping the same person and number, give the other three indicative forms of this verb. Fueram, fui, sum

7. Of amaverat, miserat, audiverat, and poterat, which one is not the same tense as the others? Poterat.

Bonus: What form would it be if it were the same tense? Potuerat.

8. Who were the Dioscuri? Castor and Pollux/Polydectes.

Bonus:What sign of the zodiac with what meaning do we get from these brothers? Gemini, twins.

9. What structures, a remarkable feat of Roman engineering, were under the control of the curator aquarum? Aqueducts.

Bonus:Spell AQUEDUCT.
10. Rome's first major highway, the Via Appia was constructed in 312 B.C. The same man supervised the construction of Rome's first aqueduct. What was it called? Aqua Appia.

Bonus:Give the name of the man who was censor when these were built. Appius Claudius (Caecus)

11. Give the masculine counterparts of the following words: dea, domina, magistra. Deus, dominus, magister.

Bonus:Give the dative plural of each of dea, domina, magistra. Deabus, dominis, magistris.

12. Translate the following sentence: Et ego et tu ad ludum ambulamus. You and I are walking to school.

Bonus:We all know the word et. Now give another way to say "and" in Latin. Atque / ac.

13. In what year did four emperors rule? A.D. 69.

Bonus: Who were they? Galba, Otho, Vitellius, Vespasian.

14. What garment with what appearance was worn by senators? Toga praetexta, with a purple border.

Bonus: Who else wore the toga praetexta? Boys.

15. The Greeks didn't respect Ares too much because they thought of him as bloodthirsty. The Romans associated their mythological counterpart not only with war, however, but also with agriculture. They named what month after him? March

Bonus: What was significant about March 1st in the early Roman calendar? It was originally New Year's Day.

16. Say in Latin, "Are you watching?" Spectasne, spectatisne.

Bonus: What is the grammatical term for -ne? Enclitic interrogative particle (accept grudgingly just enclitic).

17. Apollo's son, the god Aesculapius, was the god of medicine. His symbol was a staff with snakes twining around it. What other Roman god carried this staff? Mercury

Bonus: What was the name of this staff? Caduceus.

18. What name with what literal meaning did the Romans call the Mediterranean? Mare Nostrum, Our Sea.

Bonus: What are the literal meanings of the Latin words medius and terra which give our name for that body of water? Middle and land, earth.

19. In what year did Octavius become Octavian and why? 44 B.C. / adopted by Julius Caesar in Caesar's will.

Bonus: When did he become Augustus, and what does that title mean? 27 B.C. / August, revered

20. What is the Latin verb and meaning from which we get our English word "debt"? Debeo (-ere) I owe.

Bonus: Say in Latin, "We ought to win today." Hodie vincere debemus.