Goldwin Smith Professor of Latin in Cornell University
Quicquid praecipies, esto brevis, ut cito dicta
Percipiant animi dociles teneantque fideles:
Omne supervacuum pleno de pectore manat.
—HORACE, Ars Poetica.
COPYRIGHT, 1895; 1908; 1918 BY CHARLES E. BENNETT
The present work is a revision of that published in 1908. No radical alterations have been introduced, although a number of minor changes will be noted. I have added an Introduction on the origin and development of the Latin language, which it is hoped will prove interesting and instructive to the more ambitious pupil. At the end of the book will be found an Index to the Sources of the Illustrative Examples cited in the Syntax.
ITHACA, NEW YORK,
May 4, 1918
The present book is a revision of my Latin Grammar originally published in 1895. Wherever greater accuracy or precision of statement seemed possible, I have endeavored to secure this. The rules for syllable division have been changed and made to conform to the prevailing practice of the Romans themselves. In the Perfect Subjunctive Active, the endings -īs, -īmus, -ītis are now marked long. The theory of vowel length before the suffixes -gnus, -gna, -gnum, and also before j, has been discarded. In the Syntax I have recognized a special category of Ablative of Association, and have abandoned the original doctrine as to the force of tenses in the Prohibitive.
Apart from the foregoing, only minor and unessential modifications have been introduced. In its main lines the work remains unchanged.
ITHACA, NEW YORK,
October 16, 1907.
The object of this book is to present the essential facts of Latin grammar in a direct and simple manner, and within the smallest compass consistent with scholarly standards. While intended primarily for the secondary school, it has not neglected the needs of the college student, and aims to furnish such grammatical information as is ordinarily required in undergraduate courses.
The experience of foreign educators in recent years has tended to restrict the size of school-grammars of Latin, and has demanded an incorporation of the main principles of the language in compact manuals of 250 pages. Within the past decade, several grammars of this scope have appeared abroad which have amply met the most exacting demands.
The publication in this country of a grammar of similar plan and scope seems fully justified at the present time, as all recent editions of classic texts summarize in introductions the special idioms of grammar and style peculiar to individual authors. This makes it feasible to dispense with the enumeration of many minutiae of usage which would otherwise demand consideration in a student's grammar.
In the chapter on Prosody, I have designedly omitted all special treatment of the lyric metres of Horace and Catullus, as well as of the measures of the comic poets. Our standard editions of these authors all give such thorough consideration to versification that repetition in a separate place seems superfluous.
ITHACA, NEW YORK,
December 15, 1894.
CHAPTER II.—Syntax of Nouns.
CHAPTER III.—Syntax of Adjectives.
CHAPTER IV.—Syntax of Pronouns.
CHAPTER V.—Syntax of Verbs.
— — Imperative
— In Dependent Clauses
— — Causal Clauses
— — Temporal Clauses
— — — Cum-Clauses
— — — Of Result
— — — After nōn dubito, etc.
— — — Introduced by Quod
— — — Indirect Questions
— — Relative Clauses
CHAPTER VII.—Word-Order and Sentence-Structure.
CHAPTER VIII.—Hints on Latin Style.
1. The Indo-European Family of Languages.—Latin belongs to one group of a large family of languages, known as Indo-European. This Indo-European family of languages embraces the following groups:
a. The Sanskrit, spoken in ancient India. Of this there were several stages, the oldest of which is the Vedic, or language of the Vedic Hymns. These Hymns are the oldest literary productions known to us among all the branches of the Indo-European family. A conservative estimate places them as far back as 1500 B.C. Some scholars have even set them more than a thousand years earlier than this, i.e. anterior to 2500 B.C.
The Sanskrit, in modified form, has always continued to be spoken in India, and is represented to-day by a large number of dialects descended from the ancient Sanskrit, and spoken by millions of people.
b. The Iranian, spoken in ancient Persia, and closely related to the Sanskrit. There were two main branches of the Iranian group, viz. the Old Persian and the Avestan. The Old Persian was the official language of the court, and appears in a number of so-called cuneiform inscriptions, the earliest of which date from the time of Darius I (sixth century B.C.). The other branch of the Iranian, the Avestan, is the language of the Avesta or sacred books of the Parsees, the followers of Zoroaster, founder of the religion of the fire-worshippers. Portions of these sacred books may have been composed as early as 1000 B.C.
Modern Persian is a living representative of the old Iranian speech. It has naturally been much modified by time, particularly through the introduction of many words from the Arabic.
c. The Armenian, spoken in Armenia, the district near the Black Sea and Caucasus Mountains. This is closely related to the Iranian, and was formerly classified under that group. It is now recognized as entitled to independent rank. The earliest literary productions of the Armenian language date from the fourth and fifth centuries of the Christian era. To this period belong the translation of the Scriptures and the old Armenian Chronicle. The Armenian is still a living language, though spoken in widely separated districts, owing to the scattered locations in which the Armenians are found to-day.
d. The Tokharian. This language, only recently discovered and identified as Indo-European, was spoken in the districts east of the Caspian Sea (modern Turkestan). While in some respects closely related to the three Asiatic branches of the Indo-European family already considered, in others it shows close relationship to the European members of the family. The literature of the Tokharian, so far as it has been brought to light, consists mainly of translations from the Sanskrit sacred writings, and dates from the seventh century of our era.
e. The Greek. The Greeks had apparently long been settled in Greece and Asia Minor as far back as 1500 B.C. Probably they arrived in these districts much earlier. The earliest literary productions are the Iliad and the Odyssey of Homer, which very likely go back to the ninth century B.C. From the sixth century B.C. on, Greek literature is continuous. Modern Greek, when we consider its distance in time from antiquity, is remarkably similar to the classical Greek of the fourth and fifth centuries B.C.
f. The Italic Group. The Italic Group embraces the Umbrian, spoken in the northern part of the Italian peninsula (in ancient Umbria); the Latin, spoken in the central part (in Latium); the Oscan, spoken in the southern part (in Samnium, Campania, Lucania, etc.). Besides these, there were a number of minor dialects, such as the Marsian, Volscian, etc. Of all these (barring the Latin), there are no remains except a few scanty inscriptions. Latin literature begins shortly after 250 B.C. in the works of Livius Andronicus, Naevius, and Plautus, although a few brief inscriptions are found belonging to a much earlier period.
g. The Celtic. In the earliest historical times of which we have any record, the Celts occupied extensive portions of northern Italy, as well as certain areas in central Europe; but after the second century B.C., they are found only in Gaul and the British Isles. Among the chief languages belonging to the Celtic group are the Gallic, spoken in ancient Gaul; the Breton, still spoken in the modern French province of Brittany; the Irish, which is still extensively spoken in Ireland among the common people, the Welsh; and the Gaelic of the Scotch Highlanders.
h. The Teutonic. The Teutonic group is very extensive. Its earliest representative is the Gothic, preserved for us in the translation of the scriptures by the Gothic Bishop Ulfilas (about 375 A.D.). Other languages belonging to this group are the Old Norse, once spoken in Scandinavia, and from which are descended the modern Icelandic, Norwegian, Swedish, Danish; German; Dutch; Anglo-Saxon, from which is descended the modern English.
i. The Balto-Slavic. The languages of this group belong to eastern Europe. The Baltic division of the group embraces the Lithuanian and Lettic, spoken to-day by the people living on the eastern shores of the Baltic Sea. The earliest literary productions of these languages date from the sixteenth century. The Slavic division comprises a large number of languages, the most important of which are the Russian, the Bulgarian, the Serbian, the Bohemian, the Polish. All of these were late in developing a literature, the earliest to do so being the Old Bulgarian, in which we find a translation of the Bible dating from the ninth century.
j. The Albanian, spoken in Albania and parts of Greece, Italy, and Sicily. This is most nearly related to the Balto-Slavic group, and is characterized by the very large proportion of words borrowed from Latin, Turkish, Greek, and Slavic. Its literature does not begin till the seventeenth century.
2. Home of the Indo-European Family.—Despite the many outward differences of the various languages of the foregoing groups, a careful examination of their structure and vocabulary demonstrates their intimate relationship and proves overwhelmingly their descent from a common parent. We must believe, therefore, that at one time there existed a homogeneous clan or tribe of people speaking a language from which all the above enumerated languages are descended. The precise location of the home of this ancient tribe cannot be determined. For a long time it was assumed that it was in central Asia north of the Himalaya Mountains, but this view has long been rejected as untenable. It arose from the exaggerated importance attached for a long while to Sanskrit. The great antiquity of the earliest literary remains of the Sanskrit (the Vedic Hymns) suggested that the inhabitants of India were geographically close to the original seat of the Indo-European Family. Hence the home was sought in the elevated plateau to the north. To-day it is thought that central or southeastern Europe is much more likely to have been the cradle of the Indo-European parent-speech, though anything like a logical demonstration of so difficult a problem can hardly be expected.
As to the size and extent of the original tribe whence the Indo-European languages have sprung, we can only speculate. It probably was not large, and very likely formed a compact racial and linguistic unit for centuries, possibly for thousands of years.
The time at which Indo-European unity ceased and the various individual languages began their separate existence, is likewise shrouded in obscurity. When we consider that the separate existence of the Sanskrit may antedate 2500 B.C., it may well be believed that people speaking the Indo-European parent-speech belonged to a period as far back as 5000 B.C., or possibly earlier.
3. Stages in the Development of the Latin Language.—The earliest remains of the Latin language are found in certain very archaic inscriptions. The oldest of these belong to the sixth and seventh centuries B.C. Roman literature does not begin till several centuries later, viz. shortly after the middle of the third century B.C. We may recognize the following clearly marked periods of the language and literature:
a. The Preliterary Period, from the earliest times down to 240 B.C., when Livius Andronicus brought out his first play. For this period our knowledge of Latin depends almost exclusively upon the scanty inscriptions that have survived from this remote time. Few of these are of any length.
b. The Archaic Period, from Livius Andronicus (240 B.C.) to Cicero (81 B.C.). Even in this age the language had already become highly developed as a medium of expression. In the hands of certain gifted writers it had even become a vehicle of power and beauty. In its simplicity, however, it naturally marks a contrast with the more finished diction of later days. To this period belong:
Livius Andronicus, about 275-204 B.C. (Translation of Homer's Odyssey; Tragedies).
Plautus, about 250-184 B.C. (Comedies).
Naevius, about 270-199 B.C. ("Punic War"; Comedies).
Ennius, 239-169 B.C. ("Annals"; Tragedies).
Terence, about 190-159 B.C. (Comedies).
Lucilius, 180-103 B.C. (Satires).
Pacuvius, 220-about 130 B.C. (Tragedies).
Accius, 170-about 85 B.C. (Tragedies).
c. The Golden Age, from Cicero (81 B.C.) to the death of Augustus (14 A.D.). In this period the language, especially in the hands of Cicero, reaches a high degree of stylistic perfection. Its vocabulary, however, has not yet attained its greatest fullness and range. Traces of the diction of the Archaic Period are often noticed, especially in the poets, who naturally sought their effects by reverting to the speech of olden times. Literature reached its culmination in this epoch, especially in the great poets of the Augustan Age. The following writers belong here:
Lucretius, about 95-55 B.C. (Poem on Epicurean Philosophy).
Catullus, 87-about 54 B.C. (Poet).
Cicero, 106-43 B.C. (Orations; Rhetorical Works; Philosophical Works; Letters).
Caesar, 102-44 B.C. (Commentaries on Gallic and Civil Wars),
Sallust, 86-36 B.C. (Historian).
Nepos, about 100-about 30 B.C. (Historian).
Virgil, 70-19 B.C. ("Aeneid"; "Georgics"; "Bucolics").
Horace, 65-8 B.C. (Odes; Satires, Epistles).
Tibullus, about 54-19 B.C. (Poet).
Propertius, about 50-about 15 B.C. (Poet).
Ovid, 43 B.C.-17 A.D. ("Metamorphoses" and other poems).
Livy. 59 B.C.-17 A.D. (Historian).
d. The Silver Latinity, from the death of Augustus (14 A.D.) to the death of Marcus Aurelius (180 A.D.), This period is marked by a certain reaction against the excessive precision of the previous age. It had become the practice to pay too much attention to standardized forms of expression, and to leave too little play to the individual writer. In the healthy reaction against this formalism, greater freedom of expression now manifests itself. We note also the introduction of idioms from the colloquial language, along with many poetical words and usages. The following authors deserve mention:
Phaedrus, flourished about 40 A.D. (Fables in Verse)
Velleius Paterculus, flourished about 30 A.D. (Historian).
Lucan, 39-65 A.D. (Poem on the Civil War).
Seneca, about 1-65 A.D. (Tragedies; Philosophical Works).
Pliny the Elder, 23-79 A.D. ("Natural History").
Pliny the Younger, 62-about 115 A.D. ("Letters").
Martial, about 45-about 104 A.D. (Epigrams).
Quintilian, about 35-about 100 A.D. (Treatise on Oratory and Education).
Tacitus, about 55-about 118 A.D. (Historian).
Juvenal, about 55-about 135 A.D. (Satirist).
Suetonius, about 73-about 118 A.D. ("Lives of the Twelve Caesars").
Minucius Felix, flourished about 160 A.D. (First Christian Apologist).
Apuleius, 125-about 200 A.D. ("Metamorphoses," or "Golden Ass").
e. The Archaizing Period. This period is characterized by a conscious imitation of the Archaic Period of the second and first centuries B.C.; it overlaps the preceding period, and is of importance from a linguistic rather than from a literary point of view. Of writers who manifest the archaizing tendency most conspicuously may be mentioned Fronto, from whose hand we have a collection of letters addressed to the Emperors Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius; also Aulus Gellius, author of the "Attic Nights." Both of these writers flourished in the second half of the second century A.D.
f. The Period of the Decline, from 180 to the close of literary activity in the sixth century A.D. This period is characterized by rapid and radical alterations in the language. The features of the conversational idiom of the lower strata of society invade the literature, while in the remote provinces, such as Gaul, Spain, Africa, the language suffers from the incorporation of local peculiarities. Representative writers of this period are:
Tertullian, about 160-about 240 A.D. (Christian Writer).
Cyprian, about 200-258 A.D. (Christian Writer).
Lactantius, flourished about 300 A.D. (Defense of Christianity).
Ausonius, about 310-about 395 A.D. (Poet).
Jerome, 340-420 A.D. (Translator of the Scriptures).
Ambrose, about 340-397 (Christian Father).
Augustine, 354-430 (Christian Father—"City of God").
Prudentius, flourished 400 A.D. (Christian Poet).
Claudian, flourished 400 A.D. (Poet).
Boëthius, about 480-524 A.D. ("Consolation of Philosophy ").
4. Subsequent History of the Latin Language.—After the sixth century A.D. Latin divides into two entirely different streams. One of these is the literary language maintained in courts, in the Church, and among scholars. This was no longer the language of people in general, and as time went on, became more and more artificial. The other stream is the colloquial idiom of the common people, which developed ultimately in the provinces into the modern so-called Romance idioms. These are the Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, French, Provençal (spoken in Provence, i.e. southeastern France), the Rhaeto-Romance (spoken in the Canton of the Grisons in Switzerland), and the Roumanian, spoken in modern Roumania and adjacent districts. All these Romance languages bear the same relation to the Latin as the different groups of the Indo-European family of languages bear to the parent speech.
1. The Latin Alphabet is the same as the English, except that the Latin has no w.
1. K occurs only in Kalendae and a few other words; y and z were introduced from the Greek about 50 B.C., and occur only in foreign words—chiefly Greek.
2. With the Romans, who regularly employed only capitals, I served both as vowel and consonant; so also V. For us, however, it is more convenient to distinguish the vowel and consonant sounds, and to write i and u for the former, j and v for the latter. Yet some scholars prefer to employ i and u in the function of consonants as well as vowels.
CLASSIFICATION OF SOUNDS.
2. 1. The Vowels are a, e, i, o, u, y. The other letters are Consonants. The Diphthongs are ae, oe, ei, au, eu, ui.
2. Consonants are further subdivided into Mutes, Liquids, Nasals, and Spirants.
3. The Mutes are p, t, c, k, q; b, d, g; ph, th, ch. Of these,—
a) p, t, c, k, q are voiceless, i.e. sounded without voice or vibration of the vocal cords.
b) b, d, g are voiced, i.e. sounded with vibration of the vocal cords.
c) ph, th, ch are aspirates. These are confined almost exclusively to words derived from the Greek, and were equivalent to p + h, t + h, c + h, i.e. to the corresponding voiceless mutes with a following breath, as in Eng. loop-hole, hot-house, block-house.
4. The Mutes admit of classification also as
|Labials,||p, b, ph.|
|Dentals (or Linguals),||t, d, th.|
|Gutturals (or Palatals),||c, k, q, g, ch.|
5. The Liquids are l, r. These sounds were voiced.
6. The Nasals are m, n. These were voiced. Besides its ordinary sound, n, when followed by a guttural mute also had another sound,—that of ng in sing,—the so-called n adulterīnum; as,—
anceps, double, pronounced angceps.
7. The Spirants (sometimes called Fricatives) are f, s, h. These were voiceless.
8. The Semivowels are j and v. These were voiced.
9. Double Consonants are x and z. Of these, x was equivalent to cs, while the equivalence of z is uncertain. See § 3, 3.
10. The following table will indicate the relations of the consonant sounds:—
|c, k, q,||g,||ch,||(Gutturals).|
a. The Double Consonants, x and z, being compound sounds, do not admit of classification in the above table.
SOUNDS OF THE LETTERS.
3. The following pronunciation (often called Roman) is substantially that employed by the Romans at the height of their civilization; i.e., roughly, from 50 B.C. to 50 A.D.
|ā as in father;||ă as in the first syllable ahá;|
|ē as in they;||ĕ as in met;|
|ī as in machine;||ĭ as in pin;|
|ō as in note;||ŏ as in obey, melody;|
|ū as in rude;||ŭ as in put;|
|y like French u, German ü.|
ae like ai in aisle;
oe like oi in oil;
ei as in rein;
au like ow in how;
eu with its two elements, ĕ and ŭ,
pronounced in rapid succession;
ui occurs almost exclusively in cui and huic. These words may be pronounced as though written kwee and wheek.
b, d, f, h, k, l, m, n, p, qu are pronounced as in English, except that bs, bt are pronounced ps, pt.
c is always pronounced as k.
t is always a plain t, never with the sound of sh as in Eng. oration.
g always as in get; when ngu precedes a vowel, gu has the sound of gw, as in anguis, languidus.
j has the sound of y as in yet.
r was probably slightly trilled with the tip of the tongue.
s always voiceless as in sin; in suādeō, suāvis, suēscō, and in compounds and derivatives of these words, su has the sound of sw.
v like w.
x always like ks; never like Eng. gz or z.
z uncertain in sound; possibly like Eng. zd, possibly like z. The latter sound is recommended.
The aspirates ph, ch, th were pronounced very nearly like our stressed Eng. p, c, t—so nearly so, that, for practical purposes, the latter sounds suffice.
Doubled letters, like ll, mm, tt, etc., should be so pronounced that both members of the combination are distinctly articulated.
4. There are as many syllables in a Latin word as there are separate vowels and diphthongs.
In the division of words into syllables,—
1. A single consonant is joined to the following vowel; as, vo-lat, ge-rit, pe-rit, a-dest.
2. Doubled consonants, like tt, ss, etc., are always separated; as, vit-ta, mis-sus.
3. Other combinations of two or more consonants are regularly separated, and the first consonant of the combination is joined with the preceding vowel; as, ma-gis-trī, dig-nus, mōn-strum, sis-te-re.
4. An exception to Rule 3 occurs when the two consonants consist of a mute followed by l or r (pl, cl, tl; pr, cr, tr, etc.). In such cases both consonants are regularly joined to the following vowel; as, a-grī, vo-lu-cris, pa-tris, mā-tris. Yet if the l or r introduces the second part of a compound, the two consonants are separated; as, ab-rumpō, ad-lātus.
5. The double consonant x is joined to the preceding vowel; as, ax-is, tēx-ī.
5. A. Quantity of Vowels.
A vowel is long or short according to the length of time required for its pronunciation. No absolute rule can be given for determining the quantity of Latin vowels. This knowledge must be gained, in large measure, by experience; but the following principles are of aid:—
1. A vowel is long,—
a) before nf or ns; as, īnfāns, īnferior, cōnsūmō, cēnseō, īnsum.
b) when the result of contraction; as, nīlum for nihilum.
2. A vowel is short,—
a) before nt, nd; as, amant, amandus. A few exceptions occur in compounds whose first member has a long vowel; as, nōndum (nōn dum).
b) before another vowel, or h; as, meus, trahō. Some exceptions occur, chiefly in proper names derived from the Greek; as, Aenēās.
B. Quantity of Syllables.
Syllables are distinguished as long or short according to the length of time required for their pronunciation.
1. A syllable is long,—
a) if it contains a long vowel; as, māter, rēgnum, dīus.
b) if it contains a diphthong; as, causae, foedus.
c) if it contains a short vowel followed by x, z, or any two consonants (except a mute with l or r); as, axis, gaza, restō.
2. A syllable is short, if it contains a short vowel followed by a vowel or by a single consonant; as, mea, amat.
3. Sometimes a syllable varies in quantity, viz. when its vowel is short and is followed by a mute with l or r, i.e. by pl, cl, tl; pr, cr, tr, etc.; as, ăgrī, volŭcris. Such syllables are called common. In prose they were regularly short, but in verse they might be treated as long at the option of the poet.
NOTE.—These distinctions of long and short are not arbitrary and artificial, but are purely natural. Thus, a syllable containing a short vowel followed by two consonants, as ng, is long, because such a syllable requires more time for its pronunciation; while a syllable containing a short vowel followed by one consonant is short, because it takes less time to pronounce it. In case of the common syllables, the mute and the liquid blend so easily as to produce a combination which takes no more time than a single consonant. Yet by separating the two elements (as ag-rī) the poets were able to use such syllables as long.
6. 1. Words of two syllables are accented upon the first; as, tégit, mō´rem.
2. Words of more than two syllables are accented upon the penult (next to the last) if that is a long syllable, otherwise upon the antepenult (second from the last); as, amā´vī, amántis, míserum.
3. When the enclitics -que, -ne, -ve, -ce, -met, -dum are appended to words, if the syllable preceding the enclitic is long (either originally or as a result of adding the enclitic) it is accented; as, miserō´que, hominísque. But if the syllable still remains short after the enclitic has been added, it is not accented unless the word originally took the accent on the antepenult. Thus, pórtaque; but míseráque.
4. Sometimes the final -e of -ne and -ce disappears, but without affecting the accent; as, tantō´n, istī´c, illū´c.
5. In utră´que, each, and plēră´que, most, -que is not properly an enclitic; yet these words accent the penult, owing to the influence of their other cases,—utérque, utrúmque, plērúmque.
7.. 1. In Compounds,
a) ĕ before a single consonant becomes ĭ; as,—
colligō for con-legō.
b) ă before a single consonant becomes ĭ: as,—
adigō for ad-agō.
c) ă before two consonants becomes ē; as,—
expers for ex-pars.
d) ae becomes ī; as,—
conquīrō for con-quaerō.
e) au becomes ū, sometimes ō; as,—
conclūdō for con-claudō; explōdō for ex-plaudō.
2. Contraction. Concurrent vowels were frequently contracted into one long vowel. The first of the two vowels regularly prevailed; as,—
|trēs||for tre-es;||cōpia||for co-opia;|
|mālō||for ma(v)elō;||cōgō||for co-agō;|
|amāstī||for amā(v)istī;||cōmō||for co-emō;|
|dēbeō||for dē(h)abeō;||jūnior||for ju(v)enior.|
3. Parasitic Vowels. In the environment of liquids and nasals a parasitic vowel sometimes develops; as,—
vinculum for earlier vinclum.
So perīculum, saeculum.
4. Syncope. Sometimes a vowel drops out by syncope; as,—
ārdor for āridor (compare āridus);
valdē for validē (compare validus).
8. 1. Rhotacism. An original s between vowels became r; as,—
arbōs, Gen. arboris (for arbosis);
genus, Gen. generis (for genesis);
dirimō (for dis-emō).
2. dt, tt, ts each give s or ss; as,—
pēnsum for pend-tum;
versum for vert-tum;
mīles for mīlet-s;
sessus for sedtus;
passus for pattus.
3. Final consonants were often omitted; as,—
cor for cord;
lac for lact.
4. Assimilation of Consonants. Consonants are often assimilated to a following sound. Thus: accurrō (adc-); aggerō (adg-); asserō (ads-); allātus (adl-); apportō (adp-); attulī (adt-); arrīdeō (adr-); afferō (adf-); occurrō (obc-); suppōnō (subp-); offerō (obf-); corruō (comr-); collātus (coml-); etc.
5. Partial Assimilation. Sometimes the assimilation is only partial. Thus:—
a) b before s or t becomes p; as,—
scrīpsī (scrīb-sī), scrīptum (scrīb-tum).
b) g before s or t becomes c; as,—
c) m before a dental or guttural becomes n; as,—
eundem (eum-dem); prīnceps (prīm-ceps).
PECULIARITIES OF ORTHOGRAPHY.
9. Many words have variable orthography.
1. Sometimes the different forms belong to different periods of the language. Thus, quom, voltus, volnus, volt, etc., were the prevailing forms almost down to the Augustan age; after that, cum, vultus, vulnus, vult, etc. So optumus, maxumus, lubet, lubīdō, etc. down to about the same era; later, optimus, maximus, libet, libīdō, etc.
2. In some words the orthography varies at one and the same period of the language. Examples are exspectō, expectō; exsistō, existō; epistula, epistola; adulēscēns, adolēscēns; paulus, paullus; cottīdiē, cotīdiē; and, particularly, prepositional compounds, which often made a concession to the etymology in the spelling; as,—
|ad-gerō or aggerō;||ad-serō or asserō;|
|ad-liciō or alliciō;||in-lātus or illātus;|
|ad-rogāns or arrogāns;||sub-moveō or summoveō;|
|and many others.|
3. Compounds of jaciō were usually written ēiciō, dēiciō, adiciō, obiciō, etc., but were probably pronounced as though written adjiciō, objiciō, etc.
4. Adjectives and nouns in -quus, -quum; -vus, -vum; -uus, -uum preserved the earlier forms in -quos, -quom; -vos, -vom; -uos, -uom, down through the Ciceronian age; as, antīquos, antīquom; saevos; perpetuos; equos; servos. Similarly verbs in the 3d plural present indicative exhibit the terminations -quont, -quontur; -vont, -vontur; -uont, -uontur, for the same period; as, relinquont, loquontur; vīvont, metuont.
The older spelling, while generally followed in editions of Plautus and Terence, has not yet been adopted in our prose texts.
10. The Parts of Speech in Latin are the same as in English, viz. Nouns, Adjectives, Pronouns, Verbs, Adverbs, Prepositions, Conjunctions, and Interjections; but the Latin has no article.
11. Of these eight parts of speech the first four are capable of Inflection, i.e. of undergoing change of form to express modifications of meaning. In case of Nouns, Adjectives, and Pronouns, this process is called Declension; in case of verbs, Conjugation.
12. A Noun is the name of a person, place, thing, or quality; as, Caesar, Caesar; Rōma, Rome; penna, feather; virtūs, courage.
1. Nouns are either Proper or Common. Proper nouns are permanent names of persons or places; as, Caesar, Rōma. Other nouns are Common: as, penna, virtūs.
2. Nouns are also distinguished as Concrete or Abstract.
a) Concrete nouns are those which designate individual objects; as, mōns, mountain; pēs, foot; diēs, day; mēns, mind.
Under concrete nouns are included, also, collective nouns; as, legiō, legion; comitātus, retinue.
b) Abstract nouns designate qualities; as, cōnstantia, steadfastness; paupertās, poverty.
GENDER OF NOUNS.
13. There are three Genders,—Masculine, Feminine, and Neuter. Gender in Latin is either natural or grammatical.
14. The gender of nouns is natural when it is based upon sex. Natural gender is confined entirely to names of persons; and these are—
1. Masculine, if they denote males; as,—
nauta, sailor; agricola, farmer.
2. Feminine, if they denote females; as,—
māter, mother; rēgīna, queen.
15. Grammatical gender is determined not by sex, but by the general signification of the word, or the ending of its Nominative Singular. By grammatical gender, nouns denoting things or qualities are often Masculine or Feminine, simply by virtue of their signification or the ending of the Nominative Singular. The following are the general principles for determining grammatical gender:—
A. Gender determined by Signification.
1. Names of Rivers, Winds, and Months are Masculine; as,—
Sēquana, Seine; Eurus, east wind; Aprīlis, April.
2. Names of Trees, and such names of Towns and Islands as end in -us, are Feminine; as,—
quercus, oak; Corinthus, Corinth; Rhodus, Rhodes.
Other names of towns and islands follow the gender of their endings (see B, below); as,—
Delphī, n.; Leuctra, n.; Tībur, n.; Carthāgō, f.
3. Indeclinable nouns, also infinitives and phrases, are Neuter; as,—
nihil, nothing; nefās, wrong; amāre, to love.
NOTE.—Exceptions to the above principles sometimes occur; as, Allia (the river), f.
B. Gender determined by Ending of Nominative Singular.
The gender of other nouns is determined by the ending of the Nominative Singular.
NOTE 1.—Common Gender. Certain nouns are sometimes Masculine, sometimes Feminine. Thus, sacerdōs may mean either priest or priestess, and is Masculine or Feminine accordingly. So also cīvis, citizen; parēns, parent; etc. The gender of such nouns is said to be common.
NOTE 2.—Names of animals usually have grammatical gender, according to the ending of the Nominative Singular, but the one form may designate either the male or female; as, ānser, m., goose or gander. So vulpēs, f., fox; aquīla, f., eagle.
16. The Latin has two Numbers,—the Singular and Plural. The Singular denotes one object, the Plural, more than one.
17. There are six Cases in Latin:—
|Nominative,||Case of Subject;|
|Genitive,||Objective with of, or Possessive;|
|Dative,||Objective with to or for;|
|Accusative,||Case of Direct Object;|
|Vocative,||Case of Address;|
|Ablative,||Objective with by, from, in, with.|
1. LOCATIVE. Vestiges of another case, the Locative (denoting place where), occur in names of towns and in a few other words.
2. OBLIQUE CASES. The Genitive, Dative, Accusative, and Ablative are called Oblique Cases.
3. STEM AND CASE-ENDINGS. The different cases are formed by appending certain case-endings to a fundamental part called the Stem. Thus, portam (Accusative Singular) is formed by adding the case-ending -m to the stem porta-. But in most cases the final vowel of the stem has coalesced so closely with the actual case-ending that the latter has become more or less obscured. The apparent case-ending thus resulting is called a termination.
THE FIVE DECLENSIONS.
18. There are five Declensions in Latin, distinguished from each other by the final letter of the Stem, and also by the Termination of the Genitive Singular, as follows:—
|DECLENSION.||FINAL LETTER OF STEM.||GEN. TERMINATION.|
|Third||ĭ / Some consonant||-īs|
|Fifth||ē||-ēī / -ĕī|
19. 1. The Vocative is regularly like the Nominative, except in the singular of nouns in -us of the Second Declension.
2. The Dative and Ablative Plural are always alike.
3. In Neuters the Accusative and Nominative are always alike, and in the Plural end in -ă.
4. In the Third, Fourth, and Fifth Declensions, the Accusative Plural is regularly like the Nominative.
20. Pure Latin nouns of the First Declension regularly end, in the Nominative Singular, in -ă, weakened from -ā, and are of the Feminine Gender. They are declined as follows:—
Porta, gate; stem, portā-.
|Nom.||porta||a gate (as subject)||-ă|
|Gen.||portae||of a gate||-ae|
|Dat.||portae||to or for a gate||-ae|
|Acc.||portam||a gate (as object)||-am|
|Abl.||portā||with, by, from, in a gate||-ā|
|Nom.||portae||gates (as subject)||-ae|
|Dat.||portīs||to or for gates||-īs|
|Acc.||portās||gates (as object)||-ās|
|Abl.||portīs||with, by, from, in gates||-īs|
1. The Latin has no article, and porta may mean either a gate or the gate; and in the Plural, gates or the gates.
21. 1. EXCEPTIONS IN GENDER. Nouns denoting males are Masculine; as, nauta, sailor; agricola, farmer; also, Hadria, Adriatic Sea.
2. Rare Case-Endings,—
a) An old form of the Genitive Singular in -ās is preserved in the combination pater familiās, father of a family; also in māter familiās, fīlius familiās, fīlia familiās. But the regular form of the Genitive in -ae is also admissible in these expressions; as, pater familiae.
b) In poetry a Genitive in -āī also occurs; as, aulāī.
c) The Locative Singular ends in -ae; as, Rōmae, at Rome.
d) A Genitive Plural in -um instead of -ārum sometimes occurs; as, Dardanidum instead of Dardanidārum. This termination -um is not a contraction of -ārum, but represents an entirely different case-ending.
e) Instead of the regular ending -īs, we usually find -ābus in the Dative and Ablative Plural of dea, goddess, and fīlia, daughter, especially when it is important to distinguish these nouns from the corresponding forms of deus, god, and fīlius, son. A few other words sometimes have the same peculiarity; as, lībertābus (from līberta, freedwoman), equābus (mares), to avoid confusion with lībertīs (from lībertus, freedman) and equīs (from equus, horse).
22. These end in -ē (Feminine); -ās and -ēs (Masculine). In the Plural they are declined like regular Latin nouns of the First Declension. In the Singular they are declined as follows:—
|Archiās, Archias.||Epitomē, epitome.||Comētēs, comet.|
|Acc.||Archiam (or -ān)||epitomēn||comētēn|
|Voc.||Archiā||epitomē||comētē (or -ă)|
|Abl.||Archiā||epitomē||comētē (or -ā)|
1. But most Greek nouns in -ē become regular Latin nouns in -a, and are declined like porta; as, grammatica, grammar; mūsica, music; rhētorica, rhetoric.
2. Some other peculiarities occur, especially in poetry.
23. Pure Latin nouns of the Second Declension end in -us, -er, -ir, Masculine; -um, Neuter. Originally -us in the Nominative of the Masculine was -os; and -um of the Neuters -om. So also in the Accusative.
Nouns in -us and -um are declined as follows:—
|Hortus, garden; stem, hortŏ-.||Bellum, war; stem, bellŏ-.|
Nouns in -er and -ir are declined as follows:—
|Puer, boy; stem, puerŏ-||Ager, field; stem, agrŏ-||Vir, man; stem, virŏ-|
1. Note that in words of the type of puer and vir the final vowel of the stem has disappeared in the Nominative and Vocative Singular.
In the Nominative and Vocative Singular of ager, the stem is further modified by the development of e before r.
2. The following nouns in -er are declined like puer: adulter, adulterer; gener, son-in-law; Līber, Bacchus; socer, father-in-law; vesper, evening; and compounds in -fer and -ger, as signifer, armiger.
24. Nouns ending in the Nominative Singular in -vus, -vum, -quus, exhibited two types of inflection in the classical Latin,—an earlier and a later,—as follows:—
|Earlier Inflection (including Caesar and Cicero).|
|Servos, m., slave.||Aevom, n., age.||Equos, m., horse.|
Later inflection (after Cicero).
1. The Plural of these nouns is regular, and always uniform.
25. 1. Proper names in -ius regularly form the Genitive Singular in -ī (instead of -iī), and the Vocative Singular in -ī (for -ie); as Vergílī, of Virgil, or O Virgil (instead of Vergiliī, Vergilie). In such words the accent stands upon the penult, even though that be short. Nouns in -ajus, -ejus form the Gen. in -aī, -eī, as Pompejus, Pompeī.
2. Nouns in -ius and -ium, until after the beginning of the reign of Augustus (31 B.C.), regularly formed the Genitive Singular in -i (instead of -iī); as,—
These Genitives accent the penult, even when it is short.
3. Fīlius forms the Vocative Singular in -ī (for -ie); viz. fīlī, O son!
4. Deus, god, lacks the Vocative Singular. The Plural is inflected as follows:—
5. The Locative Singular ends in -ī; as, Corinthī, at Corinth.
6. The Genitive Plural has -um, instead of -ōrum,—
a) in words denoting money and measure; as, talentum, of talents; modium, of pecks; sēstertium, of sesterces.
b) in duumvir, triumvir, decemvir; as, duumvirum.
c) sometimes in other words; as, līberum, of the children; socium, of the allies.
26. 1. The following nouns in -us are Feminine by exception:—
a) Names of towns, islands, trees—according to the general rule laid down in § 15, 2; also some names of countries; as Aegyptus, Egypt.
b) Five special words,—
c) A few Greek Feminines; as,—
2. The following nouns in -us are Neuter:—
27. These end in -os, -ōs, Masculine or Feminine; and -on, Neuter. They are mainly proper names, and are declined as follows:—
|Barbitos, m. and f., lyre.||Androgeōs, m., Androgeos.||Īlion, n., Troy.|
1. Nouns in -os sometimes form the Accusative Singular in -um instead of -on; as, Dēlum, Delos.
2. The Plural of Greek nouns, when it occurs, is usually regular.
3. For other rare forms of Greek nouns the lexicon may be consulted.
28. Nouns of the Third Declension end in -a, -e, -ī, -ō, -y, -c, -l, -n, -r, -s, -t, -x. The Third Declension includes several distinct classes of Stems,—
|III.||Consonant-Stems which have partially adapted themselves to the inflection of ĭ-Stems.|
|IV.||A very few stems ending in a long vowel or a diphthong.|
29. 1. In these the stem appears in its unaltered form in all the oblique cases, so that the actual case-endings may be clearly recognized.
2. Consonant-Stems fall into several natural subdivisions, according as the stem ends in a Mute, Liquid, Nasal, or Spirant.
30. Mute-Stems may end,—
1. In a Labial (p); as, prīncep-s.
2. In a Guttural (g or c); as, rēmex (rēmeg-s); dux (duc-s).
3. In a Dental (d or t); as, lapis (lapid-s); mīles (mīlet-s).
1. STEMS IN A LABIAL MUTE (p).
31. Prīnceps, m., chief.
2. STEMS IN A GUTTURAL MUTE (g, c).
32. In these the termination -s of the Nominative Singular unites with the guttural, thus producing -x.
|Rēmex, m., rower.||Dux, c., leader.|
3. STEMS IN A DENTAL MUTE (d, t).
33. In these the final d or t of the stem disappears in the Nominative Singular before the ending -s.
|Lapis, m., stone.||Mīles, m., soldier.|
B. Liquid Stems.
34. These end in -l or -r.
|Vigil, m., watchman.||Victor, m., conqueror.||Aequor, n., sea.|
1. Masculine and Feminine stems ending in a liquid form the Nominative and Vocative Singular without termination.
2. The termination is also lacking in the Nominative, Accusative and Vocative Singular of all neuters of the Third Declension.
C. Nasal Stems.
35. These end in -n, which often disappears in the Nom. Sing.
|Leō, m., lion.||Nōmen, n., name|
|Mōs, m. custom.||Genus, n., race.||Honor, m., honor.|
1. Note that the final s of the stem becomes r (between vowels) in the oblique cases. In many words (honor, color, and the like) the r of the oblique cases has, by analogy, crept into the Nominative, displacing the earlier s, though the forms honōs, colōs, etc., also occur, particularly in early Latin and in poetry.
A. Masculine and Feminine ĭ-Stems.
37. These regularly end in -is in the Nominative Singular, and always have -ium in the Genitive Plural. Originally the Accusative Singular ended in -im, the Ablative Singular in -ī, and the Accusative Plural in -īs; but these endings have been largely displaced by -em, -e, and -ēs, the endings of Consonant-Stems.
|Tussis, f., cough; stem, tussi-.||Īgnis, m., fire; stem, īgni-.||Hostis, c., enemy; stem, hosti-.|
|Abl.||tussī||īgnī or e||hoste||-ī, -e|
|Acc.||tussīs or -ēs||īgnīs or -ēs||hostīs or -ēs||-īs, -ēs|
1. To the same class belong—
|apis, bee.||crātis, hurdle.||†*secūris, axe.|
|auris, ear.||*febris, fever.||sēmentis, sowing.|
|avis, bird.||orbis, circle.||†*sitis, thirst.|
|axis, axle.||ovis, sheep.||torris, brand.|
|*būris, plough-beam.||pelvis, basin.||†*turris, tower.|
|clāvis, key.||puppis, stern.||trudis, pole.|
|collis, hill.||restis, rope.||vectis, lever.|
|and many others.|
Words marked with a star regularly have Acc. -im; those marked with a † regularly have Abl. -ī. Of the others, many at times show -im and -ī. Town and river names in -is regularly have -im, -ī.
2. Not all nouns in -is are ĭ-Stems. Some are genuine consonant-stems, and have the regular consonant terminations throughout, notably, canis, dog; juvenis, youth.
3. Some genuine ĭ-Stems have become disguised in the Nominative Singular; as, pars, part, for par(ti)s; anas, duck, for ana(ti)s; so also mors, death; dōs, dowry; nox, night; sors, lot; mēns, mind; ars, art; gēns, tribe; and some others.
B. Neuter ĭ-Stems.
39. These end in the Nominative Singular in -e, -al, and -ar. They always have -ī in the Ablative Singular, -ia in the Nominative, Accusative, and Vocative Plural, and -ium in the Genitive Plural, thus holding more steadfastly to the i-character than do Masculine and Feminine ĭ-Stems.
|Nom.||sedīle||animal||calcar||-e or wanting|
|Acc.||sedīle||animal||calcar||-e or wanting|
|Voc.||sedīle||animal||calcar||-e or wanting|
1. In most words of this class the final -i of the stem is lost in the Nominative Singular; in others it appears as -e.
2. Proper names in -e form the Ablative Singular in -e; as, Sōracte, Mt. Soracte; so also sometimes mare, sea.
40. Many Consonant-Stems have so far adapted themselves to the inflection of ĭ-stems as to take -ium in the Genitive Plural, and -īs in the Accusative Plural. Their true character as Consonant-Stems, however, is shown by the fact that they never take -im in the Accusative Singular, or -ī in the Ablative Singular. The following words are examples of this class:—
Caedēs, f., slaughter;
Arx, f., citadel;
Linter, f., skiff;
|Acc.||caedēs, -īs||arcēs, -īs||lintrēs, -īs|
1. The following classes of nouns belong here:—
a) Nouns in -ēs, with Genitive in -is; as, nūbēs, aedēs, clādēs, etc.
b) Many monosyllables in -s or -x preceded by one or more consonants; as, urbs, mōns, stirps, lanx.
c) Most nouns in -ns and -rs as, cliēns, cohors.
d) Ūter, venter; fūr, līs, mās, mūs, nix; and the Plurals faucēs, penātēs, Optimātēs, Samnitēs, Quirītēs.
e) Sometimes nouns in -tās with Genitive -tātis; as, cīvitās, aetās. Cīvitās usually has cīvitātium.
Vis, f., force;
Sūs, c., swine;
Bōs, c., ox, cow;
Juppiter, m., Jupiter;
|Dat.||vīribus||suibus, subus||bōbus, būbus|
|Abl.||vīribus||suibus, subus||bōbus, būbus|
1. Notice that the oblique cases of sūs have ŭ in the root syllable.
2. Grūs is declined like sūs, except that the Dative and Ablative Plural are always gruibus.
3. Juppiter is for Jou-pater, and therefore contains the same stem as in Jov-is, Jov-ī, etc.
Nāvis was originally a diphthong stem ending in au-, but it has passed over to the ĭ-stems (§ 37). Its ablative often ends in -ī.
|Carō, f., flesh.||Os, n., bone.|
1. Iter, itineris, n., way, is inflected regularly throughout from the stem itiner-.
2. Supellex, supellectilis, f., furniture, is confined to the Singular. The oblique cases are formed from the stem supellectil-. The ablative has both -ī and -e.
3. Jecur, n., liver, forms its oblique cases from two stems,—jecor- and jecinor-. Thus, Gen. jecoris or jecinoris.
4. Femur, n., thigh, usually forms its oblique cases from the stem femor-, but sometimes from the stem femin-. Thus, Gen. femoris or feminis.
43. 1. Nouns in -ō, -or, -ōs, -er, -ĕs are Masculine.
2. Nouns in -ās, -ēs, -is, -ys, -x, -s (preceded by a consonant); -dō, -gō (Genitive -inis); -iō (abstract and collective), -ūs (Genitive -ātis or -ūdis) are Feminine.
3. Nouns ending in -a, -e, -i, -y, -o, -l, -n, -t, -ar, -ur, -ŭs are Neuter.
44. Exceptions to the Rule for Masculines.
1. Nouns in -ō.
a. Feminine: carō, flesh.
2. Nouns in -or.
a. Feminine: arbor, tree.
b. Neuter: aequor, sea; cor, heart; marmor, marble.
3. Nouns in -ōs.
a. Feminine: dōs, dowry.
b. Neuter: ōs (ōris), mouth.
4. Nouns in -er.
a. Feminine: linter, skiff.
b. Neuter: cadāver, corpse; iter, way; tūber, tumor; ūber, udder. Also botanical names in -er; as, acer, maple.
5. Nouns in -ĕs.
a. Feminine: seges, crop.
45. Exceptions to the Rule for Feminines.
1. Nouns in -ās.
a. Masculine: vās, bondsman.
b. Neuter: vās, vessel.
2. Nouns in -ēs.
a. Masculine: ariēs, ram; pariēs, wall; pēs, foot.
3. Nouns in -is.
a. Masculine: all nouns in -nis and -guis; as, amnis, river; īgnis, fire; pānis, bread; sanguis, blood; unguis, nail.
4. Nouns in -x.
a. Masculine: apex, peak; cōdex, tree-trunk; grex, flock; imbrex, tile; pollex, thumb; vertex, summit; calix, cup.
5. Nouns in -s preceded by a consonant.
a. Masculine: dēns, tooth; fōns, fountain; mōns, mountain; pōns, bridge.
6. Nouns in -dō.
a. Masculine: cardō, hinge; ōrdō, order.
46. Exceptions to the Rule for Neuters.
1. Nouns in -l.
a. Masculine: sōl, sun; sāl, salt.
2. Nouns in -n.
a. Masculine: pecten, comb.
3. Nouns in -ur.
a. Masculine: vultur, vulture.
4. Nouns in -ŭs.
a. Masculine: lepus, hare.
47. The following are the chief peculiarities of these:—
1. The ending -ă in the Accusative Singular; as, aetheră, aether; Salamīnă, Salamis.
2. The ending -ĕs in the Nominative Plural; as, Phrygĕs, Phrygians.
3. The ending -ăs in the Accusative Plural; as, Phrygăs, Phrygians.
4. Proper names in -ās (Genitive -antis) have -ā in the Vocative Singular; as, Atlās (Atlantis), Vocative Atlā, Atlas.
5. Neuters in -ma (Genitive -matis) have -īs instead of -ibus in the Dative and Ablative Plural; as, poēmatīs, poems.
6. Orpheus, and other proper names ending in -eus, form the Vocative Singular in -eu (Orpheu, etc.). But in prose the other cases usually follow the second declension; as, Orpheī, Orpheō, etc.
7. Proper names in -ēs, like Periclēs, form the Genitive Singular sometimes in -is, sometimes in -ī, as, Periclis or Periclī.
8. Feminine proper names in -ō have -ūs in the Genitive, but -ō in the other oblique cases; as,—
9. The regular Latin endings often occur in Greek nouns.
48. Nouns of the Fourth Declension end in -us Masculine, and -ū Neuter. They are declined as follows:—
|Frūctus, m., fruit.||Cornū, n., horn.|
49. 1. Nouns in -us, particularly in early Latin, often form the Genitive Singular in -ī, following the analogy of nouns in -us of the Second Declension; as, senātī, ōrnātī. This is usually the case in Plautus and Terence.
2. Nouns in -us sometimes have -ū in the Dative Singular, instead of -uī; as, frūctū (for frūctuī).
3. The ending -ubus, instead of -ibus, occurs in the Dative and Ablative Plural of artūs (Plural), limbs; tribus, tribe; and in dis-syllables in -cus; as, artubus, tribubus, arcubus, lacubus. But with the exception of tribus, all these words admit the forms in -ibus as well as those in -ubus.
4. Domus, house, is declined according to the Fourth Declension, but has also the following forms of the Second:—
domī (locative), at home;
domō, from home;
domum, homewards, to one's home;
domōs, homewards, to their (etc.) homes
5. The only Neuters of this declension in common use are: cornū, horn; genū, knee; and verū, spit.
50. The following nouns in -us are Feminine: acus, needle; domus, house; manus, hand; porticus, colonnade; tribus, tribe; Īdūs (Plural), Ides; also names of trees (§ 15, 2).
51. Nouns of the Fifth Declension end in -ēs, and are declined as follows:—
|Diēs, m., day.||Rēs, f., thing.|
52. 1. The ending of the Genitive and Dative Singular is -ĕī, instead of -ēī, when a consonant precedes; as, spĕī, rĕī, fidĕī.
2. A Genitive ending -ī (for -ĕī) is found in plēbī (from plēbēs = plēbs) in the expressions tribūnus plēbī, tribune of the people, and plēbī scītum, decree of the people; sometimes also in other words.
3. A Genitive and Dative form in -ē sometimes occurs; as, aciē.
4. With the exception of diēs and rēs, most nouns of the Fifth Declension are not declined in the Plural. But aciēs, seriēs, speciēs, spēs, and a few others are used in the Nominative and Accusative Plural.
53. Nouns of the Fifth Declension are regularly Feminine, except diēs, day, and merīdiēs, mid-day. But diēs is sometimes Feminine in the Singular, particularly when it means an appointed day.
54. Here belong—
1. Nouns used in the Singular only.
2. Nouns used in the Plural only.
3. Nouns used only in certain cases.
4. Indeclinable Nouns.
55. Many nouns, from the nature of their signification, are regularly used in the Singular only. Thus:—
1. Proper names; as, Cicerō, Cicero; Italia, Italy.
2. Nouns denoting material; as, aes, copper; lac, milk.
3. Abstract nouns; as, ignōrantia, ignorance; bonitās, goodness.
4. But the above classes of words are sometimes used in the Plural. Thus:—
a) Proper names,—to denote different members of a family, or specimens of a type; as, Cicerōnēs, the Ciceros; Catōnēs, men like Cato.
b) Names of materials,—to denote objects made of the material, or different kinds of the substance; as, aera, bronzes (i.e. bronze figures); ligna, woods.
c) Abstract nouns,—to denote instances of the quality; as, ignōrantiae, cases of ignorance.
56. Here belong—
1. Many geographical names; as, Thēbae, Thebes; Leuctra, Leuctra; Pompejī, Pompeii.
2. Many names of festivals; as, Megalēsia, the Megalesian festival.
3. Many special words, of which the following are the most important:—
angustiae, narrow pass.
mānēs, spirits of the dead.
moenia, city walls.
Also in classical prose regularly—
57. 1. Used in only One Case. Many nouns of the Fourth Declension are found only in the Ablative Singular as, jussū, by the order; injussū, without the order; nātū, by birth.
2. Used in Two Cases.
a. Fors (chance), Nom. Sing.; forte, Abl. Sing.
b. Spontis (free-will), Gen. Sing.; sponte, Abl. Sing.
3. Used in Three Cases. Nēmō, no one (Nom.), has also the Dat. nēminī and the Acc. nēminem. The Gen. and Abl. are supplied by the corresponding cases of nūllus; viz. nūllīus and nūllō.
4. Impetus has the Nom., Acc., and Abl. Sing., and the Nom. and Acc. Plu.; viz. impetus, impetum, impetū, impetūs.
a. Precī, precem, prece, lacks the Nom. and Gen. Sing.
b. Vicis, vicem, vice, lacks the Nom. and Dat. Sing.
6. Opis, dapis, and frūgis,—all lack the Nom. Sing.
7. Many monosyllables of the Third Declension lack the Gen. Plu.: as, cor, lūx, sōl, aes, ōs (ōris), rūs, sāl, tūs.
58. Here belong—
fās, n., right.
īnstar, n., likeness.
māne, n., morning.
nefās, n., impiety.
nihil, n., nothing.
secus, n., sex.
1. With the exception of māne (which may serve also as Ablative, in the morning), the nouns in this list are simply Neuters confined in use to the Nominative and Accusative Singular.
59. These are nouns whose forms are partly of one declension, and partly of another. Thus:—
1. Several nouns have the entire Singular of one declension, while the Plural is of another; as,—
|vās, vāsis (vessel);||Plu., vāsa, vāsorōum, vāsīs, etc.|
|jūgerum, jūgerī (acre);||Plu., jūgera, jūgerum, jūgeribus, etc.|
2. Several nouns, while belonging in the main to one declension, have certain special forms belonging to another. Thus:—
a) Many nouns of the First Declension ending in -ia take also a Nom. and Acc. of the Fifth; as, māteriēs, māteriem, material, as well as māteria, māteriam.
b) Famēs, hunger, regularly of the Third Declension, has the Abl. famē of the Fifth.
c) Requiēs, requiētis, rest, regularly of the Third Declension, takes an Acc. of the Fifth, requiem, in addition to requiētem.
d) Besides plēbs, plēbis, common people, of the Third Declension, we find plēbēs, plēbĕī (also plēbī, see § 52, 2), of the Fifth.
60. Heterogeneous nouns vary in Gender. Thus:—
1. Several nouns of the Second Declension have two forms,—one Masc. in -us, and one Neuter in -um; as, clipeus, clipeum, shield; carrus, carrum, cart.
2. Other nouns have one gender in the Singular, another in the Plural; as,—
|balneum, n., bath;||balneae, f., bath-house.|
|epulum, n., feast;||epulae, f., feast.|
|frēnum, n., bridle;||frēnī, m.(rarely frēna, n.), bridle.|
|jocus, m., jest;||joca, n. (also jocī, m.), jests.|
|locus, m., place;||loca, n., places; locī, m., passages or topics in an author.|
|rāstrum, n., rake;||rāstrī, m.; rāstra, n., rakes.|
a. Heterogeneous nouns may at the same time be heteroclites, as in case of the first two examples above.
61. The following nouns have one meaning in the Singular, and another in the Plural:—
|aedēs, temple;||aedēs, house.|
|auxilium, help;||auxilia, auxiliary troops.|
|carcer, prison;||carcerēs, stalls for racing-chariot.|
|castrum, fort;||castra, camp.|
|cōpia, abundance;||cōpiae, troops, resources.|
|fīnis, end;||fīnēs, borders, territory.|
|fortūna, fortune;||fortūnae, possessions, wealth.|
|grātia, favor, gratitude;||grātiae, thanks.|
|impedīmentum, hindrance;||impedīmenta, baggage.|
|littera, letter (of the alphabet);||litterae, epistle; literature.|
|mōs, habit, custom;||mōrēs, character.|
|opera, help, service;||operae, laborers.|
|(ops) opis, help;||opēs, resources.|
|pars, part;||partēs, party; rôle.|
|sāl, salt;||sălēs, wit.|
62. Adjectives denote quality. They are declined like nouns, and fall into two classes,—
1. Adjectives of the First and Second Declensions.
2. Adjectives of the Third Declension.
ADJECTIVES OF THE FIRST AND SECOND DECLENSIONS.
63. In these the Masculine is declined like hortus, puer, or ager, the Feminine like porta, and the Neuter like bellum. Thus, Masculine like hortus:—
1. The Gen. Sing. Masc. and Neut. of Adjectives in -ius ends in -iī (not in -ī as in case of Nouns; see § 25, 1; 2). So also the Voc. Sing. of such Adjectives ends in -ie, not in ī. Thus eximius forms Gen. eximiī; Voc. eximie.
2. Distributives (see § 78, 1, c) regularly form the Gen. Plu. Masc. and Neut. in -um instead of -ōrum (compare § 25, 6); as, dēnum centēnum; but always singulōrum.
64. Masculine like puer:—
65. Masculine like ager:—
1. Most adjectives in -er are declined like sacer. The following however, are declined like tener: asper, rough; lacer, torn; līber, free; miser, wretched; prōsper, prosperous; compounds in -fer and -ger; sometimes dexter, right.
2. Satur, full, is declined: satur, satura, saturum.
66. Here belong—
|alius, another;||alter, the other;|
|ūllus, any;||nūllus, none;|
|uter, which? (of two);||neuter, neither;|
|sōlus, alone;||tōtus, whole;|
|ūnus, one, alone.|
They are declined as follows:—
1. All these words lack the Vocative. The Plural is regular.
2. Neuter is declined like uter.
ADJECTIVES OF THE THIRD DECLENSION.
67. These fall into three classes,—
1. Adjectives of three terminations in the Nominative Singular,—one for each gender.
2. Adjectives of two terminations.
3. Adjectives of one termination.
a. With the exception of Comparatives, and a few other words mentioned below in § 70, 1, all Adjectives of the Third Declension follow the inflection of ĭ-stems; i.e. they have the Ablative Singular in -ī, the Genitive Plural in -ium, the Accusative Plural in -īs (as well as -ēs) in the Masculine and Feminine, and the Nominative and Accusative Plural in -ia in Neuters.
68. These are declined as follows:—
|Acc.||ācrēs, -īs||ācrēs, -īs||ācria|
1. Like ācer are declined alacer, lively; campester, level; celeber, famous; equester, equestrian; palūster, marshy; pedester, pedestrian; puter, rotten; salūber, wholesome; silvester, woody; terrester, terrestrial; volucer, winged; also names of months in -ber, as September.
2. Celer, celeris, celere, swift, retains the e before r, but lacks the Genitive Plural.
3. In the Nominative Singular of Adjectives of this class the Feminine form is sometimes used for the Masculine. This is regularly true of salūbris, silvestris, and terrestris. In case of the other words in the list, the use of the Feminine for the Masculine is confined chiefly to early and late Latin, and to poetry.
69. These are declined as follows:—
|Fortis, strong.||Fortior, stronger.|
|M. AND F.||NEUT.||M. AND F.||NEUT.|
|Acc.||fortēs, -īs||fortia||fortiōrēs, -īs||fortiōra|
1. Fortior is the Comparative of fortis. All Comparatives are regularly declined in the same way. The Acc. Plu. in -īs is rare.
|Fēlīx, happy..||Prūdēns, prudent.|
|M. AND F.||NEUT.||M. AND F.||NEUT.|
|Acc.||fēlīcēs, -īs||fēlīcia||prūdentēs, -īs||prūdentia|
|M. AND F.||NEUT.||M. AND F.||NEUT.|
1. It will be observed that vetus is declined as a pure Consonant-Stem; i.e. Ablative Singular in -e, Genitive Plural in -um, Nominative Plural Neuter in -a, and Accusative Plural Masculine and Feminine in -ēs only. In the same way are declined compos, controlling; dīves, rich; particeps, sharing; pauper, poor; prīnceps, chief; sōspes, safe; superstes, surviving. Yet dīves always has Neut. Plu. dītia.
2. Inops, needy, and memor, mindful, have Ablative Singular inopī, memorī, but Genitive Plural inopum, memorum.
3. Participles in -āns and -ēns follow the declension of ī-stems. But they do not have -ī the Ablative, except when employed as adjectives; when used as participles or as substantives, they have -e; as,—
ā sapientī virō, by a wise man; but
ā sapiente, by a philosopher.
Tarquiniō rēgnante, under the reign of Tarquin.
4. Plūs, in the Singular, is always a noun.
5. In the Ablative Singular, adjectives, when used as substantives,—
a) usually retain the adjective declension; as,—
aequālis, contemporary, Abl. aequālī.
cōnsulāris, ex-consul, Abl. cōnsulārī
So names of Months; as, Aprīlī, April; Decembrī, December.
b) But adjectives used as proper names have -e in the Ablative Singular; as, Celere, Celer; Juvenāle, Juvenal.
c) Patrials in -ās, -ātis and -īs, -ītis, when designating places regularly have -ī; as, in Arpīnātī, on the estate at Arpinum, yet -e, when used of persons; as, ab Arpīnāte, by an Arpinatian.
6. A very few indeclinable adjectives occur, the chief of which are frūgī, frugal; nēquam, worthless.
7. In poetry, adjectives and participles in -ns sometimes form the Gen. Plu. in -um instead of -ium; as, venientum, of those coming.
COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES.
71. 1. There are three degrees of Comparison,—the Positive, the Comparative, and the Superlative.
2. The Comparative is regularly formed by adding -ior (Neut. -ius), and the Superlative by adding -issimus (-a, -um), to the Stem of the Positive deprived of its final vowel; as,—
|altus, high,||altior, higher,||altissimus, highest, very high.|
So also Participles, when used as Adjectives; as,—
3. Adjectives in -er form the Superlative by appending -rimus to the Nominative of the Positive. The Comparative is regular. Thus:—
a. Notice mātūrus, mātūrior, mātūrissimus or mātūrrimus.
4. Five Adjectives in -ilis form the Superlative by adding -limus to the Stem of the Positive deprived of its final vowel. The Comparative is regular. Thus:—
5. Adjectives in -dicus, -ficus, and -volus form the Comparative and Superlative as though from forms in -dīcēns, -ficēns, -volēns. Thus:—
a. Positives in -dīcēns and -volēns occur in early Latin; as maledīcēns, benevolēns.
6. Dīves has the Comparative dīvitior or dītior; Superlative dīvitissimus or dītissimus.
72. Several Adjectives vary the Stem in Comparison; viz.—
73. 1. Positive lacking entirely,—
|(Cf. prae, in front of.)||prior, former,||prīmus, first|
|(Cf. citrā, this side of.)||citerior, on this side,||citimus, near.|
|(Cf. ultrā, beyond.)||ulterior, farther,||ultimus, farthest.|
|(Cf. intrā, within.)||interior, inner,||intimus, inmost|
|(Cf. prope, near.)||propior, nearer,||proximus, nearest.|
|(Cf. dē, down.)||dēterior, inferior,||dēterrimus, worst.|
|(Cf. archaic potis, possible.)||potior, preferable,||potissimus, chiefest|
2. Positive occurring only in special cases,—
posterō diē, annō, etc. the following
postrēmus, latest, last.
postumus, late-born, posthumous.
nātiōnēs exterae, foreign nations,
|exterior, outer||extrēmus, extimus, outermost.|
inferī, gods of the lower world,
Mare Inferum, Mediterranean Sea,
|īnferior, lower,||īnfimus, īmus, lowest.|
superī, gods above,
Mare Superum, Adriatic Sea,
3. Comparative lacking.
|novus, new,||——||novissimus, last.|
Also in some other words less frequently used.
4. Superlative lacking.
a. The Superlative is lacking also in many adjectives in -ālis, -īlis, -ĭlis, -bilis, and in a few others.
74. Many adjectives do not admit terminational comparison, but form the Comparative and Superlative degrees by prefixing magis (more) and maximē (most). Here belong—
1. Many adjectives ending in -ālis, -āris, -idus, -īlis, -icus, imus, īnus, -ōrus.
2. Adjectives in -us, preceded by a vowel; as, idōneus, adapted; arduus, steep; necessārius, necessary.
a. Adjectives in -quus, of course, do not come under this rule. The first u in such cases is not a vowel, but a consonant.
75. Here belong—
1. Many adjectives, which, from the nature of their signification, do not admit of comparison; as, hodiernus, of to-day; annuus, annual; mortālis, mortal.
2. Some special words; as, mīrus, gnārus, merus; and a few others.
FORMATION AND COMPARISON OF ADVERBS.
76. Adverbs are for the most part derived from adjectives, and depend upon them for their comparison.
1. Adverbs derived from adjectives of the First and Second Declensions form the Positive by changing -ī of the Genitive Singular to -ē; those derived from adjectives of the Third Declension, by changing -is of the Genitive Singular to -iter; as,—
a. But Adjectives in -ns, and a few others, add -er (instead of -iter), to form the Adverb; as,—
Note audāx, audācter, boldly.
2. The Comparative of all Adverbs regularly consists of the Accusative Singular Neuter of the Comparative of the Adjective; while the Superlative of the Adverb is formed by changing the -ī of the Genitive Singular of the Superlative of the Adjective to -ē. Thus—
nōn multum, little,
|——||potius, rather,||potissimum, especially.|
|——||prius, previously, before,||prīmum, first.|
|secus, otherwise,||sētius, less.|
2. A number of adjectives of the First and Second Declensions form an Adverb in -ō, instead of -ē; as,—
|crēbrō, frequently;||falsō, falsely;|
|continuō, immediately;||subitō, suddenly;|
|rārō, rarely, and a few others.|
a. cito, quickly, has -ŏ.
3. A few adjectives employ the Accusative Singular Neuter as the Positive of the Adverb; as,—
|multum, much;||paulum, little;||facile, easily.|
4. A few adjectives of the First and Second Declensions form the Positive in -iter; as,—
|fīrmus, fīrmiter, firmly;||hūmānus, hūmāniter, humanly;|
|largus, largiter, copiously;||alius, aliter, otherwise.|
a. violentus has violenter.
5. Various other adverbial suffixes occur, the most important of which are -tus and -tim; as, antīquitus, anciently; paulātim, gradually.
78. Numerals may be divided into—
I. Numeral Adjectives, comprising—
a. Cardinals; as, ūnus, one; duo, two; etc.
b. Ordinals; as, prīmus, first; secundus, second; etc.
c. Distributives; as, singulī, one by one; bīnī, two by two; etc.
II. Numeral Adverbs; as, semel, once; bis, twice; etc.
79. TABLE OF NUMERAL ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS.
|1.||ūnus, ūna, ūnum||prīmus, first||singulī, one by one||semel, once|
|2.||duo, duae, duo||secundus, second||bīnī, two by two||bis|
|3.||trēs, tria||tertius, third||ternī (trīnī)||ter|
|13.||tredecim||tertius decimus||ternī denī||terdeciēs|
|14.||quattuordecim||quārtus decimus||quaternī denī||quaterdeciēs|
|15.||quīndecim||quīntus decimus||quīnī dēnī||quīnquiēs deciēs|
|sextus decimus||sēnī dēnī||sexiēs deciēs|
|17.||septendecim||septimus decimus||septēnī dēnī||septiēs deciēs|
ūnus et vīgintī
ūnus et vīcēsimus
singulī et vīcēni
duo et vīgintī
alter et vīcēsimus
bīnī et vīcēnī
centum et ūnus
centēsimus et prīmus
centēnī et singulī
|200.||ducentī, -ae, -a||ducentēsimus||ducēnī||ducentiēs|
|2,000.||duo mīlia||bis mīllēsimus||bīna mīlia||bis mīliēs|
|100,000.||centum mīlia||centiēs mīllēsimus||centēna mīlia||centiēs mīliēs|
|1,000,000.||deciēs centēna mīlia||deciēs centiēs mīllēsimus||deciēs centēna mīlia||deciēs centiēs mīliēs|
NOTE.— -ēnsimus and -iēns are often written in the numerals instead of -ēsimus and -iēs.
80. 1. The declension of ūnus has already been given under § 66.
2. Duo is declined as follows:—
a. So ambō, both, except that its final o is long.
3. Trēs is declined,—
4. The hundreds (except centum) are declined like the Plural of bonus.
5. Mīlle is regularly an adjective in the Singular, and indeclinable. In the Plural it is a substantive (followed by the Genitive of the objects enumerated; § 201, 1), and is declined,—
Thus mīlle hominēs, a thousand men; but duo mīlia hominum, two thousand men, literally two thousands of men.
a. Occasionally the Singular admits the Genitive construction; as, mīlle hominum.
6. Other Cardinals are indeclinable. Ordinals and Distributives are declined like Adjectives of the First and Second Declensions.
81. 1. The compounds from 21 to 99 may be expressed either with the larger or the smaller numeral first. In the latter case, et is used. Thus:—
trīgintā sex or sex et trīgintā, thirty-six.
2. The numerals under 90, ending in 8 and 9, are often expressed by subtraction; as,—
duodēvīgintī, eighteen (but also octōdecim);
ūndēquadrāgintā, thirty-nine (but also trīgintā novem or novem et trīgintā).
3. Compounds over 100 regularly have the largest number first; the others follow without et; as,—
centum vīgintī septem, one hundred and twenty-seven.
annō octingentēsimō octōgēsimō secundō, in the year 882.
Yet et may be inserted where the smaller number is either a digit or one of the tens; as,—
centum et septem, one hundred and seven;
centum et quadrāgintā, one hundred and forty.
4. The Distributives are used—
a) To denote so much each, so many apiece; as,—
bīna talenta eīs dedit, he gave them two talents each.
b) When those nouns that are ordinarily Plural in form, but Singular in meaning, are employed in a Plural sense; as,—
bīnae litterae, two epistles.
But in such cases, ūnī (not singulī) is regularly employed for one, and trīnī (not ternī) for three; as,—
ūnae litterae, one epistle; trīnae litterae, three epistles.
c) In multiplication; as,—
bis bīna sunt quattuor, twice two are four.
d) Often in poetry, instead of the cardinals; as,—
bīna hastīlia, two spears.
82. A Pronoun is a word that indicates something without naming it.
83. There are the following classes of pronouns:—
I. PERSONAL PRONOUNS.
84. These correspond to the English I, you, he, she, it, etc., and are declined as follows:—
|First Person.||Second Person.||Third Person.|
|Nom.||ego, I||tū, thou||is, he; ea, she; id, it|
|Gen.||meī||tuī||(For declension see § 87.)|
|Nom.||nōs, we||vōs, you|
|Gen.||nostrum, nostrī||vestrum, vestrī|
1. A Dative Singular mī occurs in poetry.
2. Emphatic forms in -met are occasionally found; as, egomet, I myself; tibimet, to you yourself; tū has tūte and tūtemet (written also tūtimet).
3. In early Latin, mēd and tēd occur as Accusative and Ablative forms.
II. REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS.
85. These refer to the subject of the sentence or clause in which they stand; like myself, yourself, in 'I see myself,' etc. They are declined as follows:—
|First Person.||Second Person.||Third Person.|
|Supplied by oblique cases of ego.||Supplied by oblique cases of tū.|
|Gen.||meī, of myself||tuī, of thyself||suī|
|Dat.||mihi, to myself||tibi, to thyself||sibi|
|Acc.||mē, myself||tē, thyself||sē or sēsē|
|Abl.||mē, with myself, etc.||tē, with thyself, etc.||sē or sēsē|
1. The Reflexive of the Third Person serves for all genders and for both numbers. Thus sui may mean, of himself, herself, itself, or of themselves; and so with the other forms.
2. All of the Reflexive Pronouns have at times a reciprocal force; as,—
inter sē pugnant, they fight with each other.
3. In early Latin, sēd occurs as Accusative and Ablative.
III. POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS.
86. These are strictly adjectives of the First and Second Declensions, and are inflected as such. They are—
meus, -a, -um, my;
noster, nostra, nostrum, our;
tuus, -a, -um, thy;
vester, vestra, vestrum, your;
suus, -a, -um, his, her, its, their.
1. Suus is exclusively Reflexive; as,—
pater līberōs suōs amat, the father loves his children.
Otherwise, his, her, its are regularly expressed by the Genitive Singular of is, viz. ejus; and their by the Genitive Plural, eōrum, eārum.
2. The Vocative Singular Masculine of meus is mī.
3. The enclitic -pte may be joined to the Ablative Singular of the Possessive Pronouns for the purpose of emphasis. This is particularly common in case of suō, suā; as, suōpte, suāpte.
IV. DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS.
87. These point out an object as here or there, or as previously mentioned. They are—
hīc, this (where I am);
iste, that (where you are);
ille, that (something distinct from the speaker);
is, that (weaker than ille);
īdem, the same.
Hīc, iste, and ille are accordingly the Demonstratives of the First, Second, and Third Persons respectively.
Iste, that, that of yours.
Ille (archaic olle), that, that one, he, is declined like iste.
|Is, he, this, that.|
|Nom.||is||ea||id||eī, iī, (ī)||eae||ea|
|Dat.||eī||eī||eī||eīs, iīs||eīs, iīs||eīs, iīs|
|Abl.||eō||eā||eō||eīs, iīs||eīs, iīs||eīs, iīs|
Īdem, the same.
The Nom. Plu. Masc. also has īdem, and the Dat. Abl. Plu. īsdem or iīsdem
V. THE INTENSIVE PRONOUN.
88. The Intensive Pronoun in Latin is ipse. It corresponds to the English myself, etc., in 'I myself, he himself.'
VI. THE RELATIVE PRONOUN.
89. The Relative Pronoun is quī, who. It is declined:—
VII. INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS.
90. The Interrogative Pronouns are quis, who? (substantive) and quī, what? what kind of? (adjective).
1. Quis, who?
|MASC. AND FEM.||NEUTER|
|Nom.||quis||quid||The rare Plural|
|Gen.||cūjus||cūjus||follows the declension|
|Dat.||cui||cui||of the Relative Pronoun.|
2. Quī, what? what kind of? is declined precisely like the Relative Pronoun; viz. quī, quae, quod, etc.
a. An old Ablative quī occurs, in the sense of how? why?
b. Quī is sometimes used for quis in Indirect Questions.
c. Quis, when limiting words denoting persons, is sometimes an adjective. But in such cases quis homō = what man? whereas quī homō = what sort of man?
d. Quis and quī may be strengthened by adding -nam. Thus:—
|Substantive:||quisnam, who, pray? quidnam, what, pray?|
|Adjective:||quīnam, quaenam, quodnam, of what kind, pray?|
VIII. INDEFINITE PRONOUNS.
91. These have the general force of some one, any one.
|M. AND F.||NEUT.||MASC.||FEM.||NEUT.|
|any one, anything.||any.|
|some one, something.||any.|
|any one, anything.||any (rare)|
|any one, anything.||any.|
|any one (anything) you wish||any you wish|
|a certain person, or thing.||a certain|
1. In the Indefinite Pronouns, only the pronominal part is declined. Thus: Genitive Singular alicūjus, cūjuslibet, etc.
2. Note that aliquī has aliqua in the Nominative Singular Feminine, also in the Nominative and Accusative Plural Neuter. Quī has both qua and quae in these same cases.
3. Quīdam forms Accusative Singular quendam, quandam; Genitive Plural quōrundam, quārundam; the m being assimilated to n before d.
4. Aliquis may be used adjectively, and (occasionally) aliquī substantively.
5. In combination with nē, sī, nisi, num, either quis or quī may stand as a Substantive. Thus: sī quis or sī quī.
6. Ecquis, any one, though strictly an Indefinite, generally has interrogative force. It has both substantive and adjective forms,—substantive, ecquis, ecquid; adjective, ecquī, ecquae and ecqua, ecquod.
7. Quisquam is not used in the Plural.
8. There are two Indefinite Relatives,—quīcumque and quisquis, whoever. Quīcumque declines only the first part; quisquis declines both but has only quisquis, quidquid, quōquō, in common use.
92. The following adjectives, also, frequently have pronominal force:—
|alius, another;||alter, the other;|
uter, which of two? (interr.);
whichever of two (rel.);
|ūnus, one;||nūllus, no one (in oblique cases)|
2. The compounds,—
uterque, utraque, utrumque, each of two;
utercumque, utracumque, utrumcumque, whoever of two;
uterlibet, utralibet, utrumlibet, either one you please;
utervīs, utravīs, utrumvīs, either one you please;
alteruter, alterutra, alterutrum, the one or the other.
In these, uter alone is declined. The rest of the word remains unchanged, except in case of alteruter, which may decline both parts; as,—
|Nom.||alteruter||altera utra||alterum utrum|
|Gen.||alterius utrīus, etc.|
93. A Verb is a word which asserts something; as, est, he is; amat, he loves. The Inflection of Verbs is called Conjugation.
94. Verbs have Voice, Mood, Tense, Number, and Person:—
1. Two Voices,—Active and Passive.
2. Three Moods,—Indicative, Subjunctive, Imperative.
3. Six Tenses,—
Present, Perfect, Imperfect, Pluperfect, Future, Future Perfect.
But the Subjunctive lacks the Future and Future Perfect; while the Imperative employs only the Present and Future.
4. Two Numbers,—Singular and Plural.
5. Three Persons,—First, Second, and Third.
95. These make up the so-called Finite Verb. Besides this, we have the following Noun and Adjective Forms:—
1. Noun Forms,—Infinitive, Gerund, and Supine.
2. Adjective Forms,—Participles (including the Gerundive).
96. The Personal Endings of the Verb are,—
|Sing. 1.||-ō; -m; -ī (Perf. Ind.);||-r.|
-s; -stī (Perf Ind.);
-tō or wanting (Impv.);
-re, -tor (Impv.).
|3.||-t; -tō (Impv.);||-tur; -tor (Impv.).|
-tis; -stis (Perf. Ind.);
-te, -tōte (Impv.);
-nt; -ērunt (Perf Ind.);
|-ntur; -ntor (Impv.).|
97. Conjugation consists in appending certain endings to the Stem. We distinguish three different stems in a fully inflected verb,—
I. Present Stem, from which are formed—
1. Present, Imperfect, and Future Indicative,
2. Present and Imperfect Subjunctive,
3. The Imperative,
4. The Present Infinitive,
- (Active and Passive.)
5. The Present Active Participle, the Gerund, and Gerundive.
II. Perfect Stem, from which are formed—
1. Perfect, Pluperfect, and Future Perfect Indicative,
2. Perfect and Pluperfect Subjunctive,
3. Perfect Infinitive,
III. Participial Stem, from which are formed—
1. Perfect Participle,
2. Perfect, Pluperfect, and Future Perfect Indicative,
3. Perfect and Pluperfect Subjunctive,
4. Perfect Infinitive,
Apparently from the same stem, though really of different origin, are the Supine, the Future Active Participle, the Future Infinitive Active and Passive.
THE FOUR CONJUGATIONS.
98. There are in Latin four regular Conjugations, distinguished from each other by the vowel of the termination of the Present Infinitive Active, as follows:—
|INFINITIVE TERMINATION.||DISTINGUISHING VOWEL.|
99. PRINCIPAL PARTS. The Present Indicative, Present Infinitive, Perfect Indicative, and the Perfect Participle constitute the Principal Parts of a Latin verb,—so called because they contain the different stems, from which the full conjugation of the verb may be derived.
CONJUGATION OF SUM.
100. The irregular verb sum is so important for the conjugation of all other verbs that its inflection is given at the outset.
|PRES. IND.||PRES. INF.||PERF. IND.||FUT. PARTIC.|
|sum, I am,||sumus, we are,|
|es, thou art,||estis, you are,|
|est, he is;||sunt, they are.|
|eram, I was,||erāmus, we were,|
|erās, thou wast,||erātis, you were,|
|erat, he was;||erant, they were.|
|erō, I shall be,||erimus, we shall be,|
|eris, thou wilt be,||eritis, you will be,|
|erit, he will be;||erunt, they will be.|
|fuī, I have been, I was,||fuimus, we have been, we were,|
|fuistī, thou hast been, thou wast,||fuistis, you have been, you were,|
|fuit, he has been, he was;||
they have been, they were.
|fueram, I had been,||fuerāmus, we had been,|
|fuerās, thou hadst been,||fuerātis, you had been,|
|fuerat, he had been;||fuerant, they had been.|
|fuerō, I shall have been,||fuerimus, we shall have been,|
|fueris, thou wilt have been,||fueritis, you will have been,|
|fuerit, he will have been;||fuerint, they will have been.|
|sim, may I be,||sīmus, let us be,|
|sīs, mayst thou be,||sītis, be ye, may you be,|
|sit, let him be, may he be;||sint, let them be.|
|essem, I should be,||essēmus, we should be,|
|essēs, thou wouldst be,||essētis, you would be,|
|esset, he would be;||essent, they would be.|
|fuerim, I may have been,||fuerīmus, we may have been,|
|fuerīs, thou mayst have been,||fuerītis, you may have been,|
|fuerit, he may have been;||fuerint, they may have been.|
|fuissem, I should have been,||fuissēmus, we should have been.|
|fuissēs, thou wouldst have been,||fuissētis, you would have been,|
|fuisset, he would have been;||fuissent, they would have been.|
|Pres.||es, be thou;||este, be ye,|
|Fut.||estō, thou shalt be,||estōte, ye shall be,|
|estō, he shall be;||suntō, they shall be.|
|Pres.||esse, to be.|
|Perf.||fuisse, to have been.|
|Fut.||futūrus esse, to be about to be.||Fut. futūrus, about to be.|
FIRST (OR Ā-) CONJUGATION.
101. Active Voice.—Amō, I love.
|PRES. IND.||PRES. INF.||PERF. IND.||PERF. PASS. PARTIC.|
|amō, I love,||amāmus, we love,|
|amās, you love,||amātis, you love,|
|amat, he loves;||amant, they love.|
|amābam, I was loving,||amābāmus, we were loving,|
|amābās, you were loving,||amābātis, you were loving,|
|amābat, he was loving;||amābant, they were loving|
|amābō, I shall love,||amābimus, we shall love,|
|amābis, you will love,||amābitis, you will love,|
|amābit, he will love;||amābunt, they will love.|
|amāvī, I have loved, I loved,||amāvimus, we have loved, we loved,|
|amāvistī, you have loved, you loved||amāvistis, you have loved, you loved,|
|amāvit, he has loved, he loved;||amāvērunt, -ēre, they have loved, they loved.|
|amāveram, I had loved,||amāverāmus, we had loved,|
|amāverās, you had loved,||amāverātis, you had loved,|
|amāverat, he had loved;||amāverant, they had loved.|
|amāverō, I shall have loved,||amāverimus, we shall have loved,|
|amāveris, you will have loved,||amāveritis, you will have loved,|
|amāverit, he will have loved;||amāverint, they will have loved.|
|amem, may I love,||amēmus, let us love,|
|amēs, may you love,||amētis, may you love,|
|amet, let him love;||ament, let them love.|
|amārem, I should love,||amārēmus, we should love,|
|amārēs, you would love,||amārētis, you would love,|
|amāret, he would love;||amārent, they would love.|
|amāverim, I may have loved,||amāverīmus, we may have loved,|
|amāverīs, you may have loved,||amāverītis, you may have loved,|
|amāverit, he may have loved;||amāverint, they may have loved.|
|amāvissem, I should have loved,||amāvīssēmus, we should have loved,|
|amāvissēs, you would have loved,||amāvissētis, you would have loved,|
|amāvisset, he would have loved;||amāvissent, they would have loved.|
|Pres.||amā, love thou;||amāte, love ye.|
|Fut.||amātō, thou shalt love,||amātōte, ye shall love,|
|amātō, he shall love;||amantō, they shall love.|
|Pres.||amāre, to love.||Pres.||amāns, loving.|
|Perf.||amāvisse, to have loved.||(Gen. amantis.)|
|Fut.||amātūrus esse, to be about to love||Fut.||amātūrus, about to love.|
|Gen.||amandī, of loving,|
|Dat.||amandō, for loving,|
|Acc.||amandum, loving,||Acc.||amātum, to love,|
|Abl.||amandō, by loving.||Abl.||amātū, to love, be loved.|
102. Passive Voice.—Amor, I am loved.
|PRES. IND.||PRES. INF.||PERF. IND.|
I am loved.
I was loved.
|amābāris, or -re||amābāmini|
I shall be loved.
|amāberis, or -re||amābiminī|
I have been loved, or I was loved.
|amātus (-a, -um) sum||amātī (-ae, -a) sumus|
|amātus es||amātī estis|
|amātus est||amātī sunt|
I had been loved.
|amātus eram||amātī erāmus|
|amātus erās||amātī erātis|
|amātus erat||amātī erant|
I shall have been loved.
|amātus erō||amātī erimus|
|amātus eris||amātī eritis|
|amātus erit||amātī erunt|
May I be loved, let him be loved.
|amēris, or -re||amēmini|
I should be loved, he would be loved.
|amārēris, or -re||amārēminī|
I may have been loved.
|amātus sim||amātī sīmus|
|amātus sīs||amāti sītis|
|amātus sit||amāti sint|
I should have been loved, he would have been loved.
|amātus essem||amātī essēmus|
|amātus essēs||amātī essētis|
|amātus esset||amāti essent|
|Pres.||amāre, be thou loved;||amāminī, be ye loved.|
|Fut.||amātor, thou shalt be loved,|
|amātor, he shall be loved;||amantor, they shall be loved.|
|Pres.||amārī, to be loved.|
|Perf.||amātus esse, to have been loved.||Perfect.||amātus, loved, having been loved.|
|Fut.||amātum īrī, to be about to be loved.||Gerundive.||amandus, to be loved, deserving to be loved.|
SECOND (OR Ē-) CONJUGATION.
103. Active voice.—Moneō, I advise.
|PRES. IND.||PRES. INF.||PERF. IND.||PERF. PASS. PARTIC.|
I was advising, or I advised.
I shall advise.
I have advised, or I advised.
|monuit||monuērunt, or -ēre|
I had advised.
I shall have advised.
May I advise, let him advise.
I should advise, he would advise.
I may have advised.
I should have advised, he would have advised.
|Pres.||monē, advise thou;||monēte, advise ye.|
|Fut.||monētō, thou shall advise,||monētōte, ye shall advise,|
|monētō, he shall advise;||monentō, they shall advise.|
|Pres.||monēre, to advise.||Pres.||monēns, advising.|
|Perf.||monuisse, to have advised.||(Gen. monentis.)|
|Fut.||monitūrus esse, to be about to advise.||Fut.||monitūrus, about to advise.|
|Gen.||monendī, of advising,|
|Dat.||monendō, for advising,|
|Acc.||monendum, advising,||Acc.||monitum, to advise,|
|Abl.||monendō, by advising.||Abl.||monitū, to advise, be advised.|
104. Passive voice.—Moneor, I am advised.
|PRES. IND.||PRES. INF.||PERF. IND.|
I am advised.
I was advised.
|monēbāris, or -re||monēbāminī|
I shall be advised.
|monēberis, or -re||monēbiminī|
I have been advised, I was advised.
|monitus sum||monitī sumus|
|monitus es||monitī estis|
|monitus est||monitī sunt|
I had been advised.
|monitus eram||monitī erāmus|
|monitus erās||monitī erātis|
|monitus erat||monitī erant|
I shall have been advised.
|monitus erō||monitī erimus|
|monitus eris||monitī eritis|
|monitus erit||monitī erunt|
May I be advised, let him be advised.
|moneāris, or -re||moneāminī|
I should be advised, he would be advised.
|monērēris, or -re||monērēminī|
I may have been advised.
|monitus sim||monitī sīmus|
|monitus sīs||monitī sītis|
|monitus sit||monitī sint|
I should have been advised, he would have been advised.
|monitus essem||monitī essēmus|
|monitus essēs||monitī essētis|
|monitus esset||monitī essent|
|Pres.||monēre, be thou advised;||monēminī, be ye advised.|
|Fut.||monētor, thou shalt be advised,|
|monētor, he shall be advised.||monentor, they shall be advised.|
|Pres.||monērī, to be advised.||Perfect.||monitus, advised, having been advised.|
|Perf.||monitus esse, to have been advised|
|Fut.||monitum īrī, to be about to be advised.||Gerundive.||monendus, to be advised, deserving to be advised.|
THIRD (OR CONSONANT-) CONJUGATION.
105. Active Voice.—Regō, I rule.
|PRES. IND.||PRES. INF.||PERF. IND.||PERF. PASS. PARTIC.|
I was ruling, or I ruled.
I shall rule.
I have ruled, or I ruled
|rēxit||rēxērunt, or -ēre|
I had ruled.
I shall have ruled.
May I rule, let him rule.
I should rule, he would rule.
I may have ruled.
I should have ruled, he would have ruled.
|rege, rule thou;||regite, rule ye.|
|regitō, thou shall rule,||regitōte, ye shall rule,|
|regitō, he shall rule;||reguntō, they shall rule.|
|regere, to rule.||Pres.||regēns, ruling.|
|rēxisse, to have ruled.||(Gen. regentis.)|
|rēctūrus esse, to be about to rule||Fut.||rēctūrus, about to rule.|
|regendī, of ruling,|
|regendō, for ruling,|
|regendum, ruling,||Acc.||rēctum, to rule,|
|regendō, by ruling.||Abl.||rēctū, to rule, be ruled.|
106. Passive Voice.—Regor, I am ruled.
|PRES. IND.||PRES. INF.||PERF. IND.|
I am ruled.
I was ruled.
|regēbāris, or -re||regēbāminī|
I shall be ruled.
|regēris, or -re||regēminī|
I have been ruled, or I was ruled.
|rēctus sum||rēctī sumus|
|rēctus es||rēctī estis|
|rēctus est||rēctī sunt|
I had been ruled.
|rēctus eram||rēctī erāmus|
|rēctus erās||rēctī erātis|
|rēctus erat||rēctī erant|
I shall have been ruled
|rēctus erō||rēctī erimus|
|rēctus eris||rēctī eritis|
|rēctus erit||rēctī erunt|
May I be ruled, let him be ruled.
|regāris, or -re||regāminī|
I should be ruled, he would be ruled.
|regerēris, or -re||regerēminī|
I may have been ruled.
|rēctus sim||rēctī sīmus|
|rēctus sīs||rēctī sītis|
|rēctus sit||rēctī sint|
I should have been ruled, he would have been ruled.
|rēctus essem||rēctī essēmus|
|rēctus essēs||rectī essētis|
|rēctus esset||rectī essent|
|Pres.||regere, be thou ruled;||regiminī, be ye ruled.|
|Fut.||regitor, thou shalt be ruled,|
|regitor, he shall be ruled;||reguntor, they shall be ruled.|
|Pres.||regī, to be ruled.||Perfect.||rēctus, ruled, having been ruled.|
|Perf.||rēctus esse, to have been ruled.||Gerundive.||regendus, to be ruled, deserving to be ruled.|
|Fut.||rēctum īrī, to be about to be ruled.|
FOURTH (OR Ī-) CONJUGATION.
107. Active voice.—Audiō, I hear.
|PRES. IND.||PRES. INF.||PERF. IND.||PERF. PASS. PARTIC.|
I was hearing, or I heard.
I shall hear.
I have heard, or I heard.
|audīvit||audīvērunt, or -ēre|
I had heard.
I shall have heard.
May I hear, let him hear.
I should hear, he would hear.
I may have heard.
I should have heard, he would have heard.
|Pres.||audī, hear thou;||audīte, hear ye.|
|Fut.||audītō, thou shalt hear,||audītōte, ye shall hear,|
|audītō, he shall hear;||audiuntō, they shall hear.|
|Pres.||audīre, to hear.||Pres.||audiēns, hearing.|
|Perf.||audīvisse, to have heard.||(Gen. audientis.)|
|Fut.||audītūrus esse, to be about to hear.||Fut.||audītūrus, about to hear.|
|Gen.||audiendī, of hearing,|
|Dat.||audiendō, for hearing,|
|Acc.||audiendum, hearing,||Acc.||audītum, to hear,|
|Abl.||audiendō, by hearing.||Abl.||audītū, to hear, be heard.|
108. Passive Voice.—Audior, I am heard.
|PRES. IND.||PRES. INF.||PERF. IND.|
I am heard.
I was heard.
|audiēbāris, or -re||audiēbāminī|
I shall be heard.
|audiēris, or -re||audiēminī|
I have been heard, or I was heard.
|audītus sum||audītī sumus|
|audītus es||audītī estis|
|audītus est||audītī sunt|
I had been heard.
|audītus eram||audītī erāmus|
|audītus erās||audītī erātis|
|audītus erat||audītī erant|
I shall have been heard.
|audītus erō||audītī erimus|
|audītus eris||audītī eritis|
|audītus erit||audītī erunt|
May I be heard, let him be heard.
|audiāris, or -re||audiāminī|
I should be heard, he would be heard.
|audīrēris, or -re||audirēminī|
I may have been heard.
|audītus sim||audītī sīmus|
|audītus sīs||audītī sītis|
|audītus sit||audītī sint|
I should have been heard, he would have been heard.
|audītus essem||audītī essēmus|
|audītus essēs||audītī essētis|
|audītus esset||audītī essent|
|Pres.||audīre, be thou heard;||audīminī, be ye heard.|
|Fut.||audītor, thou shalt be heard,|
|audītor, he shall be heard;||audiuntor, they shall be heard.|
|Pres.||audīrī, to be heard.||Perfect.||audītus, heard, having been heard|
|Perf.||audītus esse, to have been heard.||Gerundive.||audiendus, to be heard, deserving to be heard|
|Fut.||audītum īrī, to be about to be heard.|
VERBS IN -IŌ OF THE THIRD CONJUGATION.
109. 1. Verbs in -iō of the Third Conjugation take the endings of the Fourth Conjugation wherever the latter endings have two successive vowels. This occurs only in the Present System.
2. Here belong—
a) capiō, to take; cupiō, to desire; faciō, to make; fodiō, to dig; fugiō, to flee; jaciō, to throw; pariō, to bear; quatiō, to shake; rapiō, to seize; sapiō, to taste.
b) Compounds of laciō and speciō (both ante-classical); as, alliciō, entice; cōnspiciō, behold.
c) The deponents gradior, to go; morior, to die, patior, to suffer.
110. Active voice.—Capiō, I take.
|PRES. IND.||PRES. INF.||PERF. IND.||PERF. PASS. PARTIC.|
|capiō, capis, capit;||capimus, capitis, capiunt.|
|capiēbam, -iēbās, -iēbat;||capiēbāmus, -iēbātis, -iēbant.|
|capiam, -iēs, -iet;||capiēmus, -iētis, -ient.|
|cēpī, -istī, -it;||cēpimus, -istis, -ērunt or -ēre.|
|cēperam, -erās, -erat;||cēperāmus, -erātis, -erant.|
|cēperō, -eris, -erit;||cēperimus, -eritis, -erint.|
|capiam, -iās, -iat;||capiāmus, -iātis, -iant.|
|caperem, -erēs, -eret;||caperēmus, -erētis, -erent.|
|cēperim, -eris, -erit;||cēperīmus, -erītis, -erint.|
|cēpissem, -issēs, -isset;||cēpissēmus, -issētis, -issent.|
111. Passive Voice.—Capior, I am taken.
|PRES. IND.||PRES. INF.||PERF. IND.|
|capior, caperis, capitur;||capimur, capiminī, capiuntur.|
|capiēbar, -iēbāris, -iēbātur;||capiēbāmur, -iēbāminī, -iēbantur.|
|capiar, -iēris, -iētur;||capiēmur, -iēminī, -ientur.|
|captus sum, es, est;||captī sumus, estis, sunt.|
|captus eram, erās, erat;||captī erāmus, erātis, erant.|
|captus erō, eris, erit;||captī erimus, eritis, erunt.|
|capiar, -iāris, -iātur;||capiāmur, -iāminī, -iantur.|
|caperer, -erēris, -erētur;||caperēmur, -erēminī, -erentur.|
|captus sim, sīs, sit;||captī sīmus, sītis, sint.|
|captus essem, essēs, esset;||captī essēmus, essētis, essent.|
112. Deponent Verbs have in the main Passive forms with Active or Neuter meaning. But—
a. They have the following Active forms: Future Infinitive, Present and Future Participles, Gerund, and Supine.
b. They have the following Passive meanings: always in the Gerundive, and sometimes in the Perfect Passive Participle; as—
sequendus, to be followed; adeptus, attained.
113. Paradigms of Deponent Verbs are—
|I. Conj.||mīror, mīrārī, mīrātus sum, admire.|
|II. Conj.||vereor, vererī, veritus sum, fear.|
|III. Conj.||sequor, sequī, secūtus sum, follow.|
|IV. Conj.||largior, largīrī, largītus sum, give.|
|III. (in -ior)||patior, patī, passus sum, suffer.|
|I.||II.||III.||IV.||III (in -ior)|
|Perf.||mirātus sum||veritus sum||secūtus sum||largītus sum||passus sum|
|Plup.||mīrātus eram||veritus eram||secūtus eram||largītus eram||passus eram|
|F.P.||mīrātus erō||veritus erō||secūtus erō||largītus erō||passus erō|
|Perf.||mīrātus sim||veritus sim||secūtus sim||largītus sim||passus sim|
|Plup.||mīrātus essem||veritus essem||sectūtus essem||largītus essem||passus essem|
|Pres.||mīrāre, etc.||verēre, etc.||sequere, etc.||largīre, etc.||patere, etc.|
|Fut.||mīrātor, etc.||verētor, etc.||sequitor, etc.||largītor, etc.||patitor, etc.|
|Perf.||mīrātus esse||veritus esse||secūtus esse||largītus esse||passus esse|
|Fut.||mīrātūrus esse||veritūrus esse||secūtūrus esse||largītūrus esse||passūrus esse|
|mirandō, etc.||verendō, etc.||sequendō, etc.||largiendō, etc.||patiendō, etc.|
|mīrātum, -tū||veritum, -tū||secūtum, -tū||largītum, -tū||passum, -sū|
114. 1. Semi-Deponents are verbs which have the Present System in the Active Voice, but the Perfect System in the Passive without change of meaning. Here belong—
|audeō,||audēre,||ausus sum, to dare.|
|gaudeō,||gaudēre,||gāvīsus sum, to rejoice.|
|soleō,||solēre,||solitus sum, to be wont.|
|fīdō,||fīdere,||fīsus sum, to trust.|
2. The following verbs have a Perfect Passive Participle with Active meaning:—
|adolēscō, grow up;||adultus, having grown up,|
|cēnāre, dine;||cēnātus, having dined.|
|placēre, please;||placitus, having pleased, agreeable.|
|prandēre, lunch;||prānsus, having lunched.|
|pōtāre, drink;||pōtus, having drunk.|
|jūrāre, swear;||jūrātus, having sworn.|
a. Jūrātus is used in a passive sense also.
3. Revertor and dēvertor both regularly form their Perfect in the Active Voice; viz.—
|revertor,||revertī (Inf.),||revertī (Perf.), to return.|
|dēvertor,||dēvertī (Inf.),||dēvertī (Perf.), to turn aside.|
115. There are two Periphrastic Conjugations,—the Active and the Passive. The Active is formed by combining the Future Active Participle with the auxiliary sum, the Passive by combining the Gerundive with the same auxiliary.
Active Periphrastic Conjugation.
|Pres.||amātūrus (-a, -um) sum, I am about to love.|
|Inf.||amātūrus eram, I was about to love.|
|Fut.||amātūrus erō, I shall be about to love.|
|Perf.||amātūrus fuī, I have been (was) about to love.|
|Plup.||amātūrus fueram, I had been about to love.|
|Fut. P.||amātūrus fuerō, I shall have been about to love.|
|Pres.||amātūrus sim, may I be about to love.|
|Imp.||amātūrus essem, I should be about to love.|
|Perf.||amātūrus fuerim, I may have been about to love.|
|Plup.||amātūrus fuissem, I should have been about to love.|
|Pres.||amātūrus esse, to be about to love.|
|Perf.||amātūrus fuisse, to have been about to love.|
Passive Periphrastic Conjugation.
|Pres.||amandus (-a, -um) sum, I am to be loved, must be loved.|
|Imp.||amandus eram, I was to be loved.|
|Fut.||amandus erō, I shall deserve to be loved.|
|Perf.||amandus fuī, I was to be loved.|
|Plup.||amandus fueram, I had deserved to be loved.|
|Fut. P.||amandus fuerō, I shall have deserved to be loved.|
|Pres.||amandus sim, may I deserve to be loved.|
|Imp.||amandus essem, I should deserve to be loved.|
|Perf.||amandus fuerim, I may have deserved to be loved.|
|Plup.||amendus fuissem, I should have deserved to be loved.|
|Pres.||amandus esse, to deserve to be loved.|
|Perf.||amantus fuisse, to have deserved to be loved.|
PECULIARITIES OF CONJUGATION.
116. 1. Perfects in -āvī, -ēvī, and -īvī, with the forms derived from them, often drop the ve or vi before endings beginning with r or s. So also nōvī (from nōscō) and the compounds of mōvī (from moveō). Thus:—
2. In the Gerund and Gerundive of the Third and Fourth Conjugations, the endings -undus, -undī, often occur instead of -endus and -endī, as faciundus, faciundī.
3. Dīcō, dūcō, faciō, form the Imperatives, dīc, dūc, fac. But compounds of faciō form the Imperative in -fice, as cōnfice. Compounds of dīcō, dūcō, accent the ultima; as, ēdū´c, ēdī´c.
4. Archaic and Poetic forms:—
a. The ending -ier in the Present Infinitive Passive; as, amārier, monērier, dīcier, for amārī, monērī, dīcī.
b. The ending -ībam for -iēbam in Imperfects of the Fourth Conjugation, and -ībō for -iam in Futures; as, scībam, scībō, for sciēbam, sciam.
c. Instead of the fuller forms, in such words as dīxistī, scrīpsistis, surrēxisse, we sometimes find dīxtī, scrīpstis, surrēxe, etc.
d. The endings -im, -īs, etc. (for -am, -ās, etc.) occur in a few Subjunctive forms; as, edim (eat), duint, perduint.
5. In the Future Active and Perfect Passive Infinitive, the auxiliary esse is often omitted; as, āctūrum for ācturum esse; ējectus for ējectus esse.
FORMATION OF THE VERB STEMS.
117. Many verbs employ the simple Verb Stem for the Present Stem; as, dīcere, amāre, monēre, audīre. Others modify the Verb Stem to form the Present, as follows:—
1. By appending the vowels, ā, ē, ī; as,—
|Present Stem||Verb Stem|
2. By adding i, as capiō, Present Stem capi- (Verb Stem cap-).
3. By the insertion of n (m before labial-mutes) before the final consonant of the Verb Stem; as, fundō (Stem fud-), rumpō (Stem rup-).
4. By appending -n to the Verb Stem; as,—
|cern-ō||pell-ō (for pel-nō).|
5. By appending t to the Verb Stem; as,—
6. By appending sc to the Verb Stem; as,—
7. By Reduplication, that is, by prefixing the initial consonant of the Verb Stem with i; as,—
|gi-gn-ō (root gen-),||si-st-ō (root sta-).|
118. The Perfect Stem is formed from the Verb Stem—
1. By adding v (in case of Vowel Stems); as,—
2. By adding u (in case of some Consonant Stems); as,—
3. By adding s (in case of most Consonant Stems); as,—
|scrīb-ō,||"||scrīps-ī (for scrīb-sī).|
|rīd-eō,||"||rīs-ī (for rīd-sī).|
|sent-iō,||"||sēns-ī (for sent-sī).|
|dīc-ō,||"||dīx-ī (i.e. dīc-sī).|
a. Note that before the ending -sī a Dental Mute (t, d) is lost; a Guttural Mute (c, g) unites with s to form x; while the Labial b is changed to p.
4. Without addition. Of this formation there are three types:—
a) The Verb Stem is reduplicated by prefixing the initial consonant with the following vowel or e; as,—
NOTE 1.—Compounds, with the exception of dō, stō, sistō, discō, poscō, omit the reduplication. Thus: com-pulī, but re-poposcī.
NOTE 2.—Verbs beginning with sp or st retain both consonants in the reduplication, but drop s from the stem; as, spondeō, spo-pondī; stō, stetī.
b) The short vowel of the Verb Stem is lengthened; as, legō, lēgī; agō, ēgī. Note that ă by this process becomes ē.
c) The vowel of the Verb Stem is unchanged; as, vertō, vertī; minuō, minuī.
119. The Perfect Passive Participle, from which the Participial Stem is derived by dropping -us, is formed:—
1. By adding -tus (sometimes to the Present Stem, sometimes to the Verb Stem); as,—
|sentī-re,||"||sēn-sus (for sent-tus).|
|caed-ere,||"||cae-sus (for caed-tus).|
a. Note that g, before t, becomes c (see § 8, 5); b becomes p; while dt or tt becomes ss, which is then often simplified to s (§ 8, 2).
2. After the analogy of Participles like sēnsus and caesus, where -sus arises by phonetic change, -sus for -tus is added to other Verb Stems; as,—
a. The same consonant changes occur in appending this ending -sus to the stem as in the case of the Perfect ending -si (see § 118, 3, a).
3. A few Verbs form the Participle in -ĭtus; as,—
4. The Future Active Participle is usually identical in its stem with the Perfect Passive Participle; as, amā-tus, amātūrus; moni-tus, monitūrus. But—
|juvā-re,||Perf. Partic.||jūtus,||has Fut. Act. Partic.||juvātūrus.|
LIST OF THE MOST IMPORTANT VERBS, WITH PRINCIPAL PARTS.
120. I. PERFECT IN -VĪ.
All regular verbs of the First Conjugation follow this model.
|pōtō||pōtāre||pōtāvī||pōtus (§ 114, 2)||drink|
II. PERFECT IN -UĪ.
|fricō||fricāre||fricuī||frictus and fricātus||rub|
|ex-plicō||explicāre||explicāvī (-uī)||explicātus (-itus)||unfold|
|im-plicō||implicāre||implicāvī (-uī)||implicātus (-itus)||entwine|
III. PERFECT IN -Ī WITH LENGTHENING OF THE STEM VOWEL.
IV. PERFECT REDUPLICATED.
These are all regular, and follow mīror, mīrārī, mīrātus sum.
121. I. PERFECT IN -VĪ.
|cieō||ciēre||cīvī||citus||set in motion|
II. PERFECT IN -UĪ.
a. Type -eō, -ēre, -uī, -itus.
|coerceō||coercēre||coercuī||coercitus||hold in check|
NOTE 1.—The following lack the Participial Stem:—
NOTE 2.—The following are used only in the Present System:—
b. Type -eō, -ēre, -uī, -tus (-sus).
|So contineō and sustineō; but—|
III. PERFECT IN -SĪ.
IV. PERFECT IN -Ī WITH REDUPLICATION.
V. PERFECT IN -Ī WITH LENGTHENING OF STEM VOWEL.
VI. PERFECT IN -Ī WITHOUT EITHER REDUPLICATION OR LENGTHENING OF STEM VOWEL.
|prandeō||prandēre||prandī||prānsus (§ 114, 2)||lunch|
122. I. VERBS WITH PRESENT STEM ENDING IN A CONSONANT.
1. Perfect in -sī.
a. Type -ō, -ĕre, -sī, -tus.
|nūbō||nūbere||nūpsī||nūpta (woman only)||marry|
b. Type -ō, -ĕre, -sī, -sus.
|vādō||vādere||-vāsī||-vāsum (est)||march, walk|
2. Perfect in -ī with Reduplication.
|So addō, condō, dēdō, perdō, prōdō, trādō, etc.|
|cōn-sistō||cōnsistere||cōnstitī||——||take one's stand|
|fallō||fallere||fefellī||(falsus, as Adj.)||deceive|
NOTE.—In the following verbs the perfects were originally reduplicated, but have lost the reduplicating syllable:—
3. Perfect in -ī with Lengthening of Stem Vowel.
|prōmō||prōmere||prōmpsī||(prōmptus, as Adj.)||take out|
|edō||ēsse (§ 128)||ēdī||ēsus||eat|
4. Perfect in -ī without either Reduplication or Lengthening of Stem Vowel.
|cōnsīdō||cōnsīdere||cōnsēdī||——||take one's seat|
5. Perfect in -uī.
6. Perfect in -vī.
7. Used only in Present System.
|and a few others.|
II. VERBS WITH PRESENT STEM ENDING IN -U.
|fluō||fluere||flūxi||(flūxus, as Adj.)||flow|
III. VERBS WITH PRESENT STEM ENDING IN -I.
|Passive, afficior, afficī, affectus sum.|
|So other prepositional compounds, perficiō, perficior; interficiō, interficior; etc. But—|
|Passive, assuēfiō, assuēfieri, assuēfactus sum.|
|So also patefaciō, patefīō; calefaciō, calefīō; and all non-prepositional compounds.|
IV. VERBS IN -SCŌ.
1. Verbs in -scō from Simple Roots.
|cōnsuēscō||cōnsuēscere||cōnsuēvī||cōnsuētus||accustom one's self|
|nōscō||nōscere||nōvī||——||become acquainted with|
|cognōscō||cognōscere||cognōvī||cognitus||get acquainted with|
2. Verbs in -scō formed from other Verbs.
These usually have Inchoative or Inceptive meaning (see § 155, 1). When they have the Perfect, it is the same as that of the Verbs from which they are derived.
|flōrēscō||flōrēscere||flōruī||begin to bloom||(flōreō)|
3. Verbs in -scō derived from Adjectives, usually with Inchoative meaning.
|perfruor||perfruī||perfrūctus sum||thoroughly enjoy|
|nancīscor||nancīscī||nanctus (nactus) sum||acquire|
|nāscor||nāscī||nātus sum||be born|
|proficīscor||proficīscī||profectus sum||set out|
|īrāscor||īrāscī||(īrātus, as Adj.)||be angry|
123. I. PERFECT ENDS IN -VĪ.
|So all regular Verbs of the Fourth Conjugation.|
II. PERFECT ENDS IN -UĪ.
III. PERFECT ENDS IN -SĪ.
IV. PERFECT IN -Ī WITH LENGTHENING OF STEM VOWEL.
V. PERFECT WITH LOSS OF REDUPLICATION.
VI. USED ONLY IN THE PRESENT.
|So many others.|
|Orior usually follows the Third Conjugation in its inflection; as oreris, orĭtur, orĭmur; orerer (Imp. Subj.); orere (Imper.).|
124. A number of Verbs are called Irregular. The most important are sum, dō, edō, ferō, volō, nōlō, mālō, eō, fīō. The peculiarity of these Verbs is that they append the personal endings in many forms directly to the stem, instead of employing a connecting vowel, as fer-s (2d Sing. of fer-ō), instead of fer-i-s. They are but the relics of what was once in Latin a large class of Verbs.
125. The Inflection of sum has already been given. Its various compounds are inflected in the same way. They are—
|Pres. Partic. absēns (absentis), absent.|
|praesum||praeesse||praefuī||am in charge of|
|Pres. Partic. praesēns (praesentis), present|
|prōsum||prōdesse||prōfuī||am of advantage|
NOTE.—Prōsum is compounded of prōd (earlier form of prō) and sum; the d disappears before consonants, as prōsumus; but prōdestis.
126. Possum. In its Present System possum is a compound of pot- (for pote, able) and sum; potuī is from an obsolete potēre.
|possum,||posse,||potuī,||to be able.|
|Pres.||possum, potes, potest;||possumus, potestis, possunt.|
|Pres.||possim, possīs, possit;||possīmus, possītis, possint.|
|Pres.||posse.||Pres.||potēns (as an adjective).|
127. Dō, I give.
|Pres.||dō, dās, dat;||dămus, dătis, dant.|
|dandī, etc.||dătum, dătū.|
1. The passive is inflected regularly with the short vowel. Thus: dărī, dătur, dărētur, etc.
2. The archaic and poetic Present Subjunctive forms duim, duint, perduit, perduint, etc., are not from the root da-, but from du-, a collateral root of similar meaning.
128. Edō, I eat.
|Pres. 3d Sing. ēstur.|
|Imp. 3d Sing. ēssētur.|
1. Observe the long vowel of the forms in ēs-, which alone distinguishes them from the corresponding forms of esse, to be.
2. Note comedō, comēsse, comēdī, comēsus or comēstus, consume.
3. The Present Subjunctive has edim, -īs, -it, etc., less often edam, -ās, etc.
129. Ferō, I bear.
|Pres.||ferō, fers, fert;||ferimus, fertis, ferunt.|
|feror,||ferrī,||lātus sum,||to be borne.|
|Pres.||feror, ferris, fertur;||ferimur, feriminī, feruntur.|
|Perf.||lātus sum;||lātī sumus.|
|Plup.||lātus eram;||lātī erāmus.|
|Fut. P.||lātus erō;||lātī erimus.|
|Perf.||lātus sim;||lātī sīmus.|
|Plup.||lātus essem;||lātī essēmus.|
So also the Compounds—
NOTE.—The forms sustulī and sublātus belong to tollō.
130. volō, nōlō, mālō.
|nōlō,||nōlle,||nōluī,||to be unwilling.|
|Pres.||velim, -īs, -it, etc.||nōlim.||mālīm.|
|Inf.||vellem, -ēs, -et, etc.||nōllem.||māllem.|
|fīō,||fīerī,||factus sum,||to become, be made.|
|Pres.||fīō, fīs, fit;||fīmus, fītis, fīunt.|
|Perf.||factus sum;||factī sumus.|
|Pluf.||factus eram;||factī erāmus.|
|Fut. P.||factus erō;||factī erimus.|
|Perf.||factus sim;||factī sīmus.|
|Plup.||factus essem;||factī essēmus.|
NOTE.—A few isolated forms of compounds of fīō occur; as, dēfit lacks; īnfit, begins.
|eō,||īre,||īvī,||itum (est),||to go.|
|Pres.||eō, īs, it;||īmus, ītis, eunt.|
|Perf.||īvī (iī);||īvimus (iimus).|
|Plup.||īveram (ieram);||īverāmus (ierāmus)|
|Fut. P.||īverō (ierō);||īverimus (ierimus).|
|Perf.||īverim (ierim);||īverīmus (ierīmus).|
|Pluf.||īvissem (iissem, īssem);||īvissēmus (iissēmus, īssēmus).|
|Perf.||īvisse (īsse).||(Gen. euntis.)|
|Fut.||itūrus esse.||Fut.||itūrus. Gerundive, eundum.|
|eundī, etc.||itum, itū.|
1. Transitive compounds of eō admit the full Passive inflection; as adeor, adīris, adītur, etc.
Defective Verbs lack certain forms. The following are the most important:—
133. USED MAINLY IN THE PERFECT SYSTEM.
I have begun.
|Sing. mementō; Plur. mementōte.|
|Fut.||coeptūrus esse.||ōsūrus esse.|
1. When coepī governs a Passive Infinitive it usually takes the form coeptus est; as, amārī coeptus est, he began to be loved.
2. Note that meminī and ōdī, though Perfect in form, are Present in sense. Similarly the Pluperfect and Future Perfect have the force of the Imperfect and Future; as, memineram, I remembered; ōderō, I shall hate.
134. Inquam, I say (inserted between words of a direct quotation)
|Perf. 3d Sing. inquit.|
135. Ajō, I say.
|Perf 3d Sing. aït.|
Pres 3d Sing. ajat.
NOTE.—For aīsne, do you mean? aīn is common.
136. Fārī, to speak.
This is inflected regularly in the perfect tenses. In the Present System it has—
|Pres. Partic.||fantis, fantī, etc.|
|Gerund, G.,||fandī; D. and Abl., fandō.|
NOTE.—Forms of fārī are rare. More frequent are its compounds; as,— affātur, he addresses; praefāmur, we say in advance.
137. OTHER DEFECTIVE FORMS.
1. Queō, quīre, quīvī, to be able, and nequeō, nequīre, nequīvī, to be unable, are inflected like eō, but occur chiefly in the Present Tense, and there only in special forms.
2. Quaesō, I entreat; quaesumus, we entreat.
3. Cedo (2d sing. Impv.), cette (2d plu.); give me, tell me.
4. Salvē, salvēte, hail. Also Infinitive, salvēre.
5. Havē (avē), havēte, hail. Also Infinitive, havēre.
138. Impersonal Verbs correspond to the English, it snows, it seems, etc. They have no personal subject, but may take an Infinitive, a Clause, or a Neuter Pronoun; as, mē pudet hōc fēcisse, lit. it shames me to have done this; hōc decet, this is fitting. Here belong—
I. Verbs denoting operations of the weather; as,—
II. Special Verbs.
|pudet||pudēre||puduit||it causes shame|
|miseret||miserēre||miseruit||it causes pity|
|licet||licēre||licuit||it is lawful|
|oportet||oportēre||oportuit||it is fitting|
|decet||decēre||decuit||it is becoming|
|dēdecet||dēdecēre||dēdecuit||it is unbecoming|
III. Verbs Impersonal only in Special Senses.
|cōnstat||cōnstāre||cōnstitit||it is evident|
|praestat||praestāre||praestitit||it is better|
|accēdit||accēdere||accessit||it is added|
|ēvenit||ēvenīre||ēvēnit||it turns out|
IV. The Passive of Intransitive Verbs; as,—
|ītur||lit. it is gone||i.e. some one goes|
|curritur||lit. it is run||i.e. some one runs|
|ventum est||lit. it has been come||i.e. some one has come|
|veniendum est||lit. it must be come||i.e. somebody must come|
|pugnārī potest||lit. it can be fought||i.e. somebody can fight|
139. Particles are the four Parts of Speech that do not admit of inflection; viz. Adverbs, Prepositions, Conjunctions, Interjections.
140. Adverbs denote manner, place, time, or degree Most adverbs are in origin case-forms which have become stereotyped by usage. The common adverbial terminations have already been given above (§ 76). The following TABLE OF CORRELATIVES is important:—
|RELATIVE AND INTERROGATIVE.||DEMONSTRATIVE.||INDEFINITE.|
|ubi, where; where?||
ibi, illīc, istīc, there.
|alicubī, ūsquam, ūspiam, somewhere.|
|quō, whither; whither?||
eō, istūc, illūc, thither.
|aliquō, to some place.|
|unde, whence; whence?||
inde, istinc, illinc, thence.
|alicunde, from somewhere.|
|quā, where; where?||
hāc, by this way.
eā, istāc, illāc, by that way.
|aliquā, by some way.|
tum, tunc, then.
|aliquandō, umquam, sometime, ever.|
|quotiēns, as often as; how often?||totiēns, so often.||aliquotiēns, some number of times.|
|quam, as much as; how much?||tam, so much.||aliquantum, somewhat.|
141. Prepositions show relations of words. The following Prepositions govern the Accusative:—
adversum, toward, against.
apud, with, near.
cis, this side of.
citrā, this side of.
ob, on account of.
penes, in the hands of.
propter, on account of.
1. Ūsque is often prefixed to ad, in the sense of even; as,—
ūsque ad urbem, even to the city.
2. Versus always follows its case; as,—
Rōmam versus, toward Rome.
It may be combined with a preceding Preposition; as,—
ad urbem versus, toward the city.
3. Like prope, the Comparatives propior, propius, and the Superlatives proximus, proximē, sometimes govern the Accusative; as,—
Ubiī proximē Rhēnum incolunt, the Ubii dwell next to the Rhine;
propius castra hostium, nearer the camp of the enemy.
142. The following Prepositions govern the Ablative:—
ā, ab, abs, from, by.
cōram, in the presence of.
dē, from, concerning.
ē, ex, from out of.
prō, in front of, for.
tenus, up to.
1. Ā, ab, abs. Before vowels or h, ab must be used; before consonants we find sometimes ā, sometimes ab (the latter usually not before the labials b, p, f, v, m; nor before c, g, q, or t); abs occurs only before tē, and ā is admissible even there.
2. Ē, ex. Before vowels or h, ex must be used; before consonants we find sometimes ē, sometimes ex.
3. Tenus regularly follows its case, as, pectoribus tenus, up to the breast. It sometimes governs the Genitive, as, labrōrum tenus, as far as the lips.
4. Cum is appended to the Pronouns of the First and Second Persons, and to the Reflexive Pronoun; usually also to the Relative and Interrogative. Thus:—
quōcum or cum quō
quācum or cum quā
quibuscum or cum quibus
|On quīcum, see § 89, Footnote 27.|
143. Two Prepositions, in, in, into, and sub, under, govern both the Accusative and the Ablative. With the Accusative they denote motion; with the Ablative, rest; as,—
in urbem, into the city;
in urbe, in the city.
1. Subter and super are also occasionally construed with the Ablative.
144. RELATION OF ADVERBS AND PREPOSITIONS.
1. Prepositions were originally Adverbs, and many of them still retain their adverbial meaning; as, post, afterwards; ante, previously; contrā, on the other hand, etc.
2. Conversely several words, usually adverbs, are occasionally employed as prepositions; as,—
clam, prīdiē, with the Accusative.
procul, simul, palam, with the Ablative.
3. Anástrophe. A Preposition sometimes follows its case. This is called Anástrophe; as,—
eī, quōs inter erat, those among whom he was.
Anastrophe occurs chiefly with dissyllabic prepositions.
145. 1. Conjunctions are used to connect ideas. For Coördinate Conjunctions, see §§ 341 ff. Subordinate Conjunctions are treated in connection with Subordinate Clauses.
2. Interjections express emotion. Thus:—
1. Surprise; as, ēn, ecce, ō.
2. Joy; as, iō, euoe.
3. Sorrow and Pain; as, heu, ēheu, vae, prō.
4. Calling; as, heus, eho.
146. Derivatives are formed by appending certain terminations called Suffixes to stems of verbs, nouns, or adjectives.
147. 1. The suffix -tor (-sor), Fem. -trīx, denotes the agent; as,—
|victor, victrīx, victor;||dēfēnsor, defender.|
NOTE.—The suffix -tor is occasionally appended to noun stems; as,—
gladiātor, gladiator (from gladius).
2. The suffix -or (originally -ōs) denotes an activity or a condition; as,—
|amor, love;||timor, fear;||dolor, pain.|
3. The suffixes -tiō (-siō), Gen. -ōnis, and -tus (-sus), Gen. -ūs, denote an action as in process; as,—
vēnātiō, hunting; obsessiō, blockade; gemitus, sighing; cursus, running.
NOTE.—Rarer endings with the same force are:—
a) -tūra, -sūra; as,—
sepultūra, burial; mēnsūra, measuring.
b) -ium; as,—
c) -īdō; as,—
4. The suffixes -men, -mentum, -crum, -trum, -bulum, -culum, denote the means or place of an action; as,—
|lūmen (lūc-s-men), light;||vocābulum, word;|
|ōrnāmentum, ornament;||documentum, proof;|
|sepulcrum, grave;||arātrum, plough;|
148. 1. Diminutives end in—
|-olus,||(-ola,||-olum), after a vowel|
NOTE 1.—It will be observed that in gender the Diminutives follow the gender of the words from which they are derived.
NOTE 2.—The endings -ellus, -illus contain the primitive form of the diminutive suffix, viz., -lo-. Thus:—
2. The suffix -ium appended to nouns denoting persons designates either a collection of such persons or their function; as,—
collēgium, a corporation, body of colleagues (collēga);
sacerdōtium, priestly function (sacerdōs).
3. The suffixes -ārium, -ētum, -īle designate a place where objects are kept or are found in abundance; as,—
4. The suffix -ātus denotes official position or honor; as,—
cōnsulātus, consulship (cōnsul).
5. The suffix -īna appended to nouns denoting persons designates a vocation or the place where it is carried on; as,—
doctrīna, teaching (doctor, teacher);
medicīna, the art of healing (medicus, physician);
sūtrīna, cobbler's shop (sūtor, cobbler).
6. Patronymics are Greek proper names denoting son of ..., daughter of .... They have the following suffixes:—
a) Masculines: -idēs, -adēs, -īdēs; as, Priamidēs, son of Priam; Aeneadēs, son of Aeneas; Pēlīdēs, son of Peleus.
b) Feminines: -ēis, -is, -ias; as, Nērēis, daughter of Nereus; Atlantis, daughter of Atlas; Thaumantias, daughter of Thaumas.
149. The suffixes -tās (-itās), -tūdō (-itūdō), -ia, -itia are used for the formation of abstract nouns denoting qualities; as,—
bonitās, goodness; celeritās, swiftness; magnitūdō, greatness; audācia, boldness; amīcitia, friendship.
150. 1. The suffixes -bundus and -cundus give nearly the force of a present participle; as,—
|tremebundus, trembling;||jūcundus (juvō), pleasing.|
2. The suffixes -āx and -ulus denote an inclination or tendency, mostly a faulty one; as,—
|loquāx, loquacious;||crēdulus, credulous.|
3. The suffix -idus denotes a state; as,—
|calidus, hot;||timidus, timid;||cupidus, eager.|
4. The suffixes -ilis and -bilis denote capacity or ability, usually in a passive sense; as,—
fragilis, fragile (i.e. capable of being broken);
a) From Common Nouns.
151. 1. The suffixes -eus and -inus are appended to names of substances or materials; as,—
|aureus, of gold;||ferreus, of iron;||fāginus, of beech.|
2. The suffixes -ius, -icus, -īlis, -ālis, -āris, -ārius, -nus, -ānus, -īnus, -īvus, -ēnsis signify belonging to, connected with; as,—
|ōrātōrius, oratorical;||legiōnārius, legionary;|
|bellicus, pertaining to war;||paternus, paternal;|
|cīvīlis, civil;||urbānus, of the city;|
|rēgālis, regal;||marīnus, marine;|
|cōnsulāris, consular;||aestīvus, pertaining to summer;|
|circēnsis, belonging to the circus.|
3. The suffixes -ōsus and -lentus denote fullness; as,—
|perīculōsus, full of danger, dangerous;||
4. The suffix -tus has the force of provided with; as,—
|barbātus, bearded;||stellātus, set with stars.|
b) From Proper Names.
152. 1. Names of persons take the suffixes: -ānus, -iānus, -īnus; as,—
|Catōniānus, belonging to Cato;||Plautīnus, belonging to Plautus.|
2. Names of nations take the suffixes -icus, -ius; as,—
|Germānicus, German;||Thrācius, Thracian.|
3. Names of places take the suffixes -ānus, -īnus, -ēnsis, -aeus, -ius; as,—
|Rōmānus, Roman;||Athēniēnsis, Athenian;|
|Amerīnus, of Ameria;||Smyrnaeus, of Smyrna;|
NOTE.— -ānus and -ēnsis, appended to names of countries, designate something stationed in the country or connected with it, but not indigenous; as,—
bellum Āfricānum, a war (of Romans with Romans) in Africa.
bellum Hispāniēnse, a war carried on in Spain.
legiōnes Gallicānae, (Roman) legions stationed in Gaul.
153. Diminutives in -lus sometimes occur; as,—
misellus (passer), poor little (sparrow);
154. These end in -ernus, -ternus, -tīnus, -tĭnus; as,—
155. 1. INCEPTIVES OR INCHOATIVES. These end in -scō, and are formed from Present Stems. They denote the beginning of an action; as,—
|labāscō,||begin to totter||(from labō);|
|horrēscō,||grow rough||(from horreō);|
|tremēscō,||begin to tremble||(from tremō);|
|obdormīscō,||fall asleep||(from dormiō).|
2. FREQUENTATIVES OR INTENSIVES. These denote a repeated or energetic action. They are formed from the Participial Stem, and end in -tō or -sō. Those derived from verbs of the First Conjugation end in -itō (not -ātō, as we should expect). Examples of Frequentatives are—
|jactō,||toss about, brandish||(from jaciō, hurl);|
|cursō,||run hither and thither||(from currō, run);|
|volitō,||flit about||(from volō, fly).|
a. Some double Frequentatives occur; as,—
|cantitō,||sing over and over||(cantō);|
|cursitō,||keep running about||(cursō);|
b. agitō, set in motion, is formed from the Present Stem.
3. DESIDERATIVES. These denote a desire to do something. They are formed from the Participial Stem, and end in -uriō; as,—
|ēsuriō,||desire to eat, am hungry||(edō);|
|parturiō,||want to bring forth, am in labor||(pariō).|
156. Denominatives of the First Conjugation are mostly transitive; those of the Second exclusively intransitive. Those of the Third and Fourth Conjugations are partly transitive, partly intransitive. Examples are—
a) From Nouns:—
b) From Adjectives:—
157. 1. Adverbs derived from verbs are formed from the Participial Stem by means of the suffix -im; as,—
2. Adverbs derived from nouns and adjectives are formed:—
a) With the suffixes -tim (-sim), -ātim; as,—
gradātim, step by step;
virītim, man by man.
b) With the suffix -tus; as,—
antīquitus, of old;
rādīcitus, from the roots.
c) With the suffix -ter; as,—
158. 1. Compounds are formed by the union of simple words. The second member usually contains the essential meaning of the compound; the first member expresses some modification of this.
2. Vowel changes often occur in the process of composition. Thus:—
a. In the second member of compounds. (See § 7, 1.)
b. The final vowel of the stem of the first member of the compound often appears as ĭ where we should expect ŏ or ă; sometimes it is dropped altogether, and in case of consonant stems ĭ is often inserted; as,—
159. EXAMPLES OF COMPOUNDS.
a) Preposition + Noun; as,—
b) Noun + Verb Stem; as,—
a) Preposition + Adjective (or Noun); as,—
per-magnus, very great;
sub-obscūrus, rather obscure;
b) Adjective + Noun; as,—
c) Noun + Verb Stem; as,—
The second member is always a verb. The first may be—
a) A Noun; as,—
b) An Adjective; as,—
c) An Adverb; as,—
male-dīcō, rail at.
d) Another Verb; as,—
cale-faciō, make warm.
e) A Preposition; as,—
re-ferō, bring back;
NOTE.—Here belong the so-called INSEPARABLE PREPOSITIONS:
ambi- (amb-), around;
dis- (dir-, di-), apart, asunder;
red- (re-), back;
sēd- (sē-), apart from;
These are of various types; as,—
īlīcō (in locō), on the spot;
obviam, in the way.
160. Syntax treats of the use of words in sentences
161. Sentences may be classified as follows:—
1. DECLARATIVE, which state something; as,—
puer scrībit, the boy is writing.
2. INTERROGATIVE, Which ask a question; as,—
quid puer scrībit, what is the boy writing?
3. EXCLAMATORY, which are in the form of an exclamation; as,—
quot librōs scrībit, how many books he writes!
4. IMPERATIVE, which express a command or an admonition; as,—
162. Questions may be either Word-Questions or Sentence-Questions.
1. Word-Questions. These are introduced by the various interrogative pronouns and adverbs, such as—quis, quī, quālis, quantus, quot, quotiēns, quō, quā, etc. Thus:—
quis venit, who comes? quam dīū manēbit, how long will he stay?
2. Sentence-Questions. These are introduced—
a) By nōnne implying the answer 'yes'; as,—
nōnne vidētis, do you not see?
b) By num implying the answer 'no'; as,—
num exspectās, do you expect? (i.e. you don't expect, do you?)
c) by the enclitic -ne, appended to the emphatic word (which usually stands first), and simply asking for information; as,—
vidēsne, do you see?
A question introduced by -ne may receive a special implication from the context; as,—
sēnsistīne, did you not perceive?
d) Sometimes by no special word, particularly in expressions of surprise or indignation; as,—
tū in jūdicum cōnspectum venīre audēs, do you dare to come into the presence of the judges?
3. Rhetorical Questions. These are questions merely in form, being employed to express an emphatic assertion; as, quis dubitat, who doubts? (= no one doubts).
4. Double Questions. Double Questions are introduced by the following particles:—
utrum ... an;
-ne ... an;
—— ... an.
If the second member is negative, annōn (less often necne) is used. Examples:—
|utrum honestum est an turpe,||}|
|honestumne est an turpe,||} is it honorable or base?|
|honestum est an turpe,||}|
|suntne dī annōn, are there gods or not?|
a. An was not originally confined to double questions, but introduced single questions, having the force of -ne, nōnne, or num. Traces of this use survive in classical Latin; as,—
Ā rēbus gerendīs abstrahit senectūs. Quibus? An eīs quae juventūte geruntur et vīrībus? Old age (it is alleged) withdraws men from active pursuits. From what pursuits? Is it not merely from those which are carried on by the strength of youth?
a. The answer YES is expressed by ita, etiam, vērō, sānē, or by repetition of the verb; as,—
'vīsne locum mūtēmus?' 'sānē'. 'Shall we change the place?' 'Certainly.'
'estīsne vōs lēgatī?' 'sumus.' 'Are you envoys?' 'Yes.'
b. The answer NO is expressed by nōn, minimē, minimē vērō, or by repeating the verb with a negative; as,—
'jam ea praeteriit?' 'nōn.' 'Has it passed?' 'No.'
'estne frāter intus?' 'nōn est.' 'Is your brother within?' 'No.'
163. The two essential parts of a sentence are the SUBJECT and PREDICATE.
The SUBJECT is that concerning which something is said, asked, etc. The PREDICATE is that which is said, asked, etc., concerning the SUBJECT.
164. Sentences containing but one Subject and one Predicate are called SIMPLE SENTENCES, those containing more are called COMPOUND SENTENCES. Thus puer librōs legit, the boy reads books, is a Simple Sentence; but puer librōs legit et epistulās scrībit, the boy reads books and writes letters, is a Compound Sentence. The different members of a Compound Sentence are called Clauses.
165. COÖRDINATE AND SUBORDINATE CLAUSES. Clauses which stand upon an equality are called COÖRDINATE; a Clause dependent on another is called SUBORDINATE. Thus in puer librōs legit et epistulās scrībit the two clauses are Coördinate; but in puer librōs legit quōs pater scrībit, the boy reads the books which his father writes, the second clause is Subordinate to the first.
166. The Subject of a Finite Verb (i.e. any form of the Indicative, Subjunctive, or Imperative) is in the Nominative Case.
1. The Subject may be—
a) A Noun or Pronoun; as,—
puer scrībit, the boy writes;
hīc scrībit, this man writes.
b) An Infinitive; as,—
decōrum est prō patriā morī, to die for one's county is a noble thing.
c) A Clause; as,—
opportūnē accīdit quod vīdistī, it happened opportunely that you saw.
2. A Personal Pronoun as Subject is usually implied in the Verb and is not separately expressed; as,—
scrībō, I write; videt, he sees.
a. But for the purpose of emphasis or contrast the Pronoun is expressed; as,—
ego scrībō et tū legis, I write, and you read.
3. The verb is sometimes omitted when it can be easily supplied from the context, especially the auxiliary sum; as,—
rēctē ille (sc. facit), he does rightly; consul profectus (sc. est), the consul set out.
167. A PREDICATE NOUN is one connected with the Subject by some form of the verb Sum or a similar verb.
168. A Predicate Noun agrees with its Subject in Case; as,—
Cicerō ōrātor fuit, Cicero was an orator;
Numa creātus est rēx, Numa was elected king.
1. when possible, the Predicate Noun usually agrees with its Subect in Gender also; as,—
philosophia est vītae magistra, philosophy is the guide of life.
2. Besides sum, the verbs most frequently accompanied by a Predicate Noun are—
a) fiō, ēvādō, exsistō; maneō; videor; as,—
Croesus nōn semper mānsit rēx, Croesus did not always remain king.
b) Passive verbs of making, calling, regarding, etc.; as, creor, appellor, habeor; as,—
Rōmulus rēx appellatus est, Romulus was called king;
habitus est deus, he was regarded as a god.
169. 1. An Appositive is a Noun explaining or defining another Noun denoting the same person or thing; as,—
Cicerō cōnsul, Cicero, the Consul;
urbs Rōma, the city Rome.
2. An Appositive agrees with its Subject in Case; as,—
opera Cicerōnīs ōrātōris, the works of Cicero, the orator;
apud Hērodotum, patrem historiae, in the works of Herodotus, the father of history.
3. When possible, the Appositive agrees with its Subject in Gender also; as,—
assentātiō adjūtrīx vitiōrum, flattery, the promoter of evils.
4. A Locative may take in Apposition the Ablative of urbs or oppidum, with or without a preposition; as,—
Corinthī, Achāiae urbe, or in Achāiae urbe, at Corinth, a city of Greece.
5. PARTITIVE APPOSITION. A Noun denoting a whole is frequently followed by an Appositive denoting a part; as,—
mīlitēs, fortissimus quisque, hostibus restitērunt, the soldiers, all the bravest of them, resisted the enemy.
170. The Nominative is confined to its use as Subject, Appositive, or Predicate Noun, as already explained. See §§ 166-169.
171. The Vocative is the Case of direct address; as,—
crēdite mihi, jūdicēs, believe me, judges.
1. By a species of attraction, the Nominative is occasionally used for the Vocative, especially in poetry and formal prose; as, audī tū, populus Albānus, hear ye, Alban people!
2. Similarly the Appositive of a Vocative may, in poetry, stand in the Nominative; as, nāte, mea magna potentia sōlus, O son, alone the source of my great power.
172. The Accusative is the Case of the Direct Object.
173. The Direct Object may express either of the two following relations:—
A. The PERSON OR THING AFFECTED by the action; as,—
cōnsulem interfēcit, he slew the consul;
legō librum, I read the book.
B. The RESULT PRODUCED by the action; as,—
librum scrīpsī, I wrote a book (i.e. produced one);
templum struit, he constructs a temple.
174. Verbs that admit a Direct Object of either of these two types are TRANSITIVE VERBS.
a. Verbs that regularly take a Direct Object are sometimes used without it. They are then said to be employed absolutely; as,—
rūmor est meum gnātum amāre, it is rumored that my son is in love.
175. 1. This is the most frequent use of the Accusative; as in—
parentēs amāmus, we love our parents;
mare aspicit, he gazes at the sea.
2. The following classes of Verbs taking an Accusative of this kind are worthy of note:—
a) Many Intransitive Verbs, when compounded with a Preposition, become Transitive. Thus:—
1) Compounds of circum, praeter, trāns; as,—
hostēs circumstāre, to surround the enemy;
urbem praeterīre, to pass by the city;
mūrōs trānscendere, to climb over the walls.
2) Less frequently, compounds of ad, per, in, sub; as,—
adīre urbem, to visit the city;
peragrāre Italiam, to travel through Italy;
inīre magistrātum, to take office;
subīre perīculum, to undergo danger.
b) Many Verbs expressing emotions, regularly Intransitive, have also a Transitive use; as,—
queror fātum, I lament my fate;
doleō ejus mortem, I grieve at his death;
rīdeō tuam stultitiam, I laugh at your folly.
So also lūgeō, maereō, mourn; gemō, bemoan; horreō, shudder, and others.
c) The impersonals decet, it becomes; dēdecet, it is unbecoming; juvat, it pleases, take the Accusative of the Person Affected; as,—
mē decet haec dīcere, it becomes me to say this.
d) In poetry many Passive Verbs, in imitation of Greek usage, are employed as Middles (§ 256, 1; 2), and take the Accusative as Object; as,—
galeam induitur, he puts on his helmet;
cīnctus tempora hederā, having bound his temples with ivy;
nōdō sinus collēcta, having gathered her dress in a knot.
176. 1. The ordinary type of this Accusative is seen in such expressions as—
librum scrībō, I write a book;
domum aedificō, I build a house.
2. Many Verbs usually Intransitive take a Neuter Pronoun, or Adjective, as an Accusative of Result. Thus:—
a) A Neuter Pronoun; as,—
haec gemēbat, he made these moans;
idem glōriārī, to make the same boast;
eadem peccat, he makes the same mistakes.
b) A Neuter Adjective,—particularly Adjectives of number or amount,—multum, multa, pauca, etc.; also nihil; as,—
multa egeō, I have many needs;
pauca studet, he has few interests;
multum valet, he has great strength;
nihil peccat, he makes no mistake.
NOTE.—In poetry other Adjectives are freely used in this construction; as—
minitantem vāna, making vain threats;
acerba tuēns, giving a fierce look;
dulce loquentem, sweetly talking.
3. The adverbial use of several Neuter Pronouns and Adjectives grows out of this Accusative; as,—
multum sunt in vēnātiōne, they are much engaged in hunting.
a. So also plūrimum, very greatly; plērumque, generally; aliquid, somewhat; quid, why? nihil, not at all; etc.
4. Sometimes an Intransitive Verb takes an Accusative of Result which is of kindred etymology with the Verb. This is called a COGNATE ACCUSATIVE, and is usually modified by an Adjective; as,—
sempiternam servitūtem serviat, let him serve an everlasting slavery;
vītam dūram vīxī, I have lived a hard life.
a. Sometimes the Cognate Accusative is not of kindred etymology, but merely of kindred meaning; as,—
stadium currit, he runs a race;
Olympia vincit, he wins an Olympic victory.
5. The Accusative of Result occurs also after Verbs of tasting and smelling; as,—
piscis mare sapit, the fish tastes of the sea;
ōrātiōnēs antīquitātem redolent, the speeches smack of the past.
177. Many Verbs of Making, Choosing, Calling, Showing, and the like, take two Accusatives, one of the Person or Thing Affected, the other a Predicate Accusative; as,—
mē hērēdem fēcit, he made me heir.
Here mē is Direct Object, hērēdēm Predicate Accusative. So also—
eum jūdicem cēpēre, they took him as judge;
urbem Rōmam vocāvit, he called the city Rome;
sē virum praestitit, he showed himself a man.
2. The Predicate Accusative may be an Adjective as well as a Noun; as,—
hominēs caecōs reddit cupiditās, covetousness renders men blind;
Apollō Sōcratem sapientissimum jūdicāvit, Apollo adjudged Socrates the wisest man.
a. Some Verbs, as reddō, usually admit only an Adjective as the Predicate Accusative.
3. In the Passive the Direct Object becomes the Subject, and the Predicate Accusative becomes Predicate Nominative (§ 168, 2, b): as,—
urbs Rōma vocāta est, the city was called Rome.
a. Not all Verbs admit the Passive construction; reddō and efficiō, for example, never take it.
178. 1. Some Verbs take two Accusatives, one of the Person Affected, the other of the Result Produced. Thus:—
a) Verbs of requesting and demanding; as,—
ōtium dīvōs rogat, he asks the gods for rest;
mē duās ōrātiōnēs postulās, you demand two speeches of me.
So also ōrō, poscō, reposcō, exposcō, flāgitō, though some of these prefer the Ablative with ab to the Accusative of the Person; as,—
opem ā tē poscō, I demand aid of you.
b) Verbs of teaching (doceō and its compounds); as,—
tē litterās doceō, I teach you your letters.
c) Verbs of inquiring; as,—
tē haec rogō, I ask you this;
tē sententiam rogō, I ask you your opinion.
d) Several Special Verbs; viz. moneō, admoneō, commoneō, cōgō, accūsō, arguō, and a few others. These admit only a Neuter Pronoun or Adjective as Accusative of the Thing; as,—
hōc tē moneō, I give you this advice;
mē id accūsās, you bring this accusation against me;
id cōgit nōs nātūra, nature compels us (to) this.
e) One Verb of concealing, cēlō; as,—
nōn tē cēlāvī sermōnem, I have not concealed the conversation from you.
2. In the Passive construction the Accusative of the Person becomes the Subject, and the Accusative of the Thing is retained; as,—
omnēs artēs ēdoctus est, he was taught all accomplishments;
rogātus sum sententiam, I was asked my opinion;
multa ādmonēmur, we are given many admonitions.
a. Only a few Verbs admit the Passive construction.
179. 1. Transitive compounds of trāns may take two Accusatives, one dependent upon the Verb, the other upon the Preposition, as,—
mīlitēs flūmen trānsportat, he leads his soldiers across the river.
2. With other compounds this construction is rare.
3. In the Passive the Accusative dependent upon the preposition is retained; as,—
mīlitēs flūmen trādūcēbantur, the soldiers were led across the river.
180. 1. The Synecdochical (or Greek) Accusative denotes the part to which an action or quality refers; as,—
tremit artūs, literally, he trembles as to his limbs, i.e. his limbs tremble;
nūda genū, lit. bare as to the knee, i.e. with knee bare;
manūs revinctus, lit. tied as to the hands, i.e. with hands tied.
2. Note that this construction—
a) Is borrowed from the Greek.
b) Is chiefly confined to poetry.
c) Usually refers to a part of the body.
d) Is used with Adjectives as well as Verbs.
181. 1. Duration of Time and Extent of Space are denoted by the Accusative; as,—
quadrāgintā annōs vīxit, he lived forty years;
hīc locus passūs sescentōs aberat, this place was six hundred paces away;
arborēs quīnquāgintā pedēs altae, trees fifty feet high;
abhinc septem annōs, seven years ago.
2. Emphasis is sometimes added by using the Preposition per; as,
per biennium labōrāvī, I toiled throughout two years.
182. 1. The Accusative of Limit of Motion is used—
a) With names of Towns, Small Islands, and Peninsulas; as,—
Rōmam vēnī, I came to Rome;
Athēnās proficīscitur, he sets out for Athens;
Dēlum pervēnī, I arrived at Delos.
b) With domum, domōs, rūs; as,—
domum revertitur, he returns home;
rūs ībō, I shall go to the country.
NOTE.—When domus means house (i.e. building), it takes a preposition; as,—
in domum veterem remigrāre, to move back to an old house.
2. Other designations of place than those above mentioned require a Preposition to denote Limit of Motion; as,—
ad Italiam vēnit, he came to Italy.
a. The Preposition is also customary with the Accusatives urbem or oppidum when they stand in apposition with the name of a town; as,—
Thalam, in oppidum magnum, to Thala, a large town;
Genavam ad oppidum, to the town Geneva.
b. The name of a town denoting limit of motion may be combined with the name of a country or other word dependent upon a preposition; as,—
Thūriōs in Italiam pervectus, carried to Thurii in Italy;
cum Acēn ad exercitum vēnisset, when he had come to the army at Ace.
3. To denote toward, to the vicinity of, in the vicinity of, ad is used; as,—
ad Tarentum vēnī, I came to the vicinity of Tarentum;
ad Cannās pugna facta est, a battle was fought near Cannae.
4. In poetry the Accusative of any noun denoting a place may be used without a preposition to express the limit of motion; as,—
Italiam vēnit, he came to Italy.
5. The goal notion seems to represent the original function of the Accusative Case. Traces of this primitive force are recognizable in the phrase īnfitiās īre, to deny (lit. to go to a denial), and a few other similar expressions.
183. The Accusative, generally modified by an Adjective, is used in Exclamations; as,—
mē miserum, ah, wretched me!
Ō fallācem spem, oh, deceptive hope!
184. The Subject of the Infinitive is put in the Accusative; as,—
videō hominem abīre, I see that the man is going away.
185. Here belong—
1. Some Accusatives which were originally Appositives; viz.—
id genus, of that kind; as, hominēs id genus, men of that kind (originally hominēs, id genus hominum, men, that kind of men);
virīle secus, muliebre secus, of the male sex, of the female sex;
meam vicem, tuam vicem, etc., for my part, etc.;
bonam partem, magnam partem, in large part;
maximam partem, for the most part.
2. Some phrases of doubtful origin; as,—
|id temporis, at that time;||quod si, but if;|
|id aetātis, at that time;||cētera, in other respects.|
186. The Dative case, in general, expresses relations which are designated in English by the prepositions to and for.
187. The commonest use of the Dative is to denote the person to whom something is given, said, or done. Thus:—
I. With transitive verbs in connection with the Accusative; as,—
hanc pecūniam mihi dat, he gives me this money;
haec nōbīs dīxit, he said this to us.
a. Some verbs which take this construction (particularly dōnō and circumdō) admit also the Accusative of the person along with the Ablative of the thing. Thus:—
Either Themistoclī mūnera dōnāvit, he presented gifts to Themistocles, or
Themistoclem mūneribus dōnāvit, he presented Themistocles with gifts;
urbī mūrōs circumdat, he builds walls around the city, or
urbem mūrīs circumdat, he surrounds the city with walls
II. With many intransitive verbs; as,—
nūllī labōrī cēdit, he yields to no labor.
a. Here belong many verbs signifying favor, help, injure, please, displease, trust, distrust, command, obey, serve, resist, indulge, spare, pardon, envy, threaten, be angry, believe, persuade, and the like; as,—
Caesar populāribus favet, Caesar favors (i.e. is favorable to) the popular party;
amīcīs cōnfīdō, I trust (to) my friends;
Orgetorīx Helvētiīs persuāsit, Orgetorix persuaded (made it acceptable to) the Helvetians;
bonīs nocet quī malīs parcit, he injures (does harm to) the good, who spares the bad.
NOTE.—It is to be borne in mind that these verbs do not take the Dative by virtue of their apparent English equivalence, but simply because they are intransitive, and adapted to an indirect object. Some verbs of the same apparent English equivalence are transitive and govern the Accusative; as, juvō, laedō, dēlectō. Thus: audentēs deus juvat, God helps the bold; nēminem laesit he injured no one.
b. Verbs of this class are used in the passive only impersonally; as,—
tibi parcitur, you are spared;
mihi persuādētur, I am being persuaded;
eī invidētur, he is envied.
c. Some of the foregoing verbs admit also a Direct Object in connection with the Dative; as,—
mihi mortem minitātur, he threatens me with death (threatens death to me).
III. With many verbs compounded with the prepositions: ad, ante, circum, com, in, inter, ob, post, prae, prō, sub, super.
These verbs fall into two main classes,—
1. Many simple verbs which cannot take a Dative of the indirect object become capable of doing so when compounded with a preposition; as,—
afflīctīs succurrit, he helps the aflicted;
exercituī praefuit, he was in command of the army;
intersum cōnsiliīs, I share in the deliberations.
2. Many transitive verbs which take only a direct object become capable, when compounded, of taking a dative also as indirect object; as,—
pecūniae pudōrem antepōnit, he puts honor before money;
inicere spem amīcīs, to inspire hope in one's friends;
mūnītiōni Labiēnum praefēcit, he put Labienus in charge of the fortifications.
188. 1. The Dative of Reference denotes the person to whom a statement refers, of whom it is true, or to whom it is of interest; as,—
mihi ante oculōs versāris, you hover before my eyes (lit. hover before the eyes to me);
illī sevēritās amōrem nōn dēminuit, in his case severity did not diminish love (lit. to him severity did not diminish);
interclūdere inimīcīs commeātum, to cut of the supplies of the enemy.
a. Note the phrase alicui interdīcere aquā et īgnī, to interdict one from fire and water.
NOTE.—The Dative of Reference, unlike the Dative of Indirect Object, does not modify the verb, but rather the sentence as a whole. It is often used where, according to the English idiom, we should expect a Genitive; so in the first and third of the above examples.
2. Special varieties of the Dative of Reference are—
a) Dative of the Local Standpoint. This is regularly a participle; as,—
oppidum prīmum Thessaliae venientibus ab Ēpīrō, the first town of Thessaly as you come from Epirus (lit. to those coming from Epirus).
b) Ethical Dative. This name is given to those Dative constructions of the personal pronouns in which the connection of the Dative with the rest of the sentence is of the very slightest sort; as,—
tū mihi istīus audāciam dēfendis? tell me, do you defend that man's audacity?
quid mihi Celsus agit? what is my Celsus doing?
c) Dative of Person Judging; as,—
erit ille mihi semper deus, he will always be a god to me (i.e. in my opinion);
quae ista servitūs tam clāro hominī, how can that be slavery to so illustrious a man (i.e. to his mind)!
d) Dative of Separation. Some verbs of taking away, especially compounds of ab, dē, ex, ad, govern a Dative of the person, less often of the thing; as,—
honōrem dētrāxērunt hominī, they took away the honor from the man;
Caesar rēgī tetrarchiam ēripuit, Caesar took the tetrarchy away from the king;
silicī scintillam excūdit, he struck a spark from the flint.
189. The Dative is used to denote agency—
1. Regularly with the Gerundive; as,—
haec nōbīs agenda sunt, these things must be done by us;
mihi eundum est, I must go (lit. it must be gone by me).
a. To avoid ambiguity, ā with the Ablative is sometimes used with the Gerundive; as,—
hostibus ā nōbīs parcendum est, the enemy must be spared by us.
2. Much less frequently with the compound tenses of the passive voice and the perfect passive participle; as,—
disputātiō quae mihi nūper habita est, the discussion which was recently conducted by me.
3. Rarely with the uncompounded tenses of the passive; as,—
honesta bonīs virīs quaeruntur, noble ends are sought by good men.
190. The Dative of Possession occurs with the verb esse in such expressions as:—
mihi est liber, I have a book;
mihi nōmen est Mārcus, I have the name Marcus.
1. But with nōmen est the name is more commonly attracted into the Dative; as, mihi Mārcō nōmen est.
191. The Dative of Purpose or Tendency designates the end toward which an action is directed or the direction in which it tends. It is used—
1. Unaccompanied by another Dative; as,—
castrīs locum dēligere, to choose a place for a camp;
legiōnēs praesidiō relinquere, to leave the legions as a guard (lit. for a guard);
receptuī canere, to sound the signal for a retreat.
2. Much more frequently in connection with another Dative of the person:—
a) Especially with some form of esse; as,—
fortūnae tuae mihi cūrae sunt, your fortunes are a care to me (lit. for a care);
quibus sunt odiō, to whom they are an object of hatred;
cui bonō? to whom is it of advantage?
b) With other verbs; as,—
hōs tibi mūnerī mīsit, he has sent these to you for a present;
Pausaniās Atticīs vēnit auxiliō, Pausanias came to the aid of the Athenians (lit. to the Athenians for aid).
3. In connection with the Gerundive; as,—
decemvirī lēgibus scrībundīs, decemvirs for codifying the laws;
mē gerendō bellō ducem creāvēre, me they have made leader for carrying on the war.
NOTE.—This construction with the gerundive is not common till Livy.
192. The use of the Dative with Adjectives corresponds very closely to its use with verbs. Thus:—
1. Corresponding to the Dative of Indirect Object it occurs with adjectives signifying: friendly, unfriendly, similar, dissimilar, equal, near, related to, etc.; as,—
mihi inimīcus, hostile to me;
sunt proximī Germānis, they are next to the Germans;
noxiae poena pār estō, let the penalty be equal to the damage.
a. For propior and proximus with the Accusative, see § 141, 3.
2. Corresponding to the Dative of Purpose, the Dative occurs with adjectives signifying: suitable, adapted, fit; as,—
castrīs idōneus locus, a place fit for a camp;
apta diēs sacrificiō, a day suitable for a sacrifice.
NOTE.—Adjectives of this last class often take the Accusative with ad.
193. In the poets the Dative is occasionally used to denote the direction of motion; as,—
it clāmor caelō, the shout goes heavenward;
cinerēs rīvō fluentī jace, cast the ashes toward a flowing stream.
1. By an extension of this construction the poets sometimes use the Dative to denote the limit of motion; as,—
dum Latiō deōs īnferret, till he should bring his gods to Latium.
194. The Genitive is used with Nouns, Adjectives, and Verbs.
GENITIVE WITH NOUNS.
195. With Nouns the Genitive is the case which defines the meaning of the limited noun more closely. This relation is generally indicated in English by the preposition of. There are the following varieties of the Genitive with Nouns:—
|Genitive of Origin,||Objective Genitive,|
|Genitive of Material,||Genitive of the Whole,|
|Genitive of Possession,||Appositional Genitive,|
|Subjective Genitive,||Genitive of Quality.|
196. Genitive of Origin; as,—
Mārcī fīlius, the son of Marcus.
197. Genitive of Material; as,—
talentum aurī, a talent of gold;
acervus frūmentī, a pile of grain.
198. Genitive of Possession or Ownership; as,—
domus Cicerōnis, Cicero's house.
1. Here belongs the Genitive with causā and grātiā. The Genitive always precedes; as,—
hominum causā, for the sake of men;
meōrum amīcōrum grātiā, for the sake of my friends.
2. The Possessive Genitive is often used predicatively, especially with esse and fierī; as,—
domus est rēgis, the house is the king's;
stultī est in errōre manēre, it is (the part) of a fool to remain in error;
dē bellō jūdicium imperātōris est, nōn mīlitum, the decision concerning war belongs to the general, not to the soldiers.
a. For the difference in force between the Possessive Genitive and the Dative of Possession, see § 359, 1.
199. Subjective Genitive. This denotes the person who makes or produces something or who has a feeling; as,—
dicta Platōnis, the utterances of Plato;
timōrēs līberōrum, the fears of the children.
200. Objective Genitive. This denotes the object of an action or feeling; as,—
metus deōrum, the fear of the gods;
amor lībertātis, love of liberty;
cōnsuētūdō bonōrum hominum, intercourse with good men.
1. This relation is often expressed by means of prepositions; as,—
amor ergā parentēs, love toward one's parents.
201. Genitive of the Whole. This designates the whole of which a part is taken. It is used—
1. With Nouns, Pronouns, Comparatives, Superlatives, and Ordinal Numerals; as,—
magna pars hominum, a great part of mankind;
duo mīlia peditum, two thousand foot-soldiers;
quis mortālium, who of mortals?
major frātrum, the elder of the brothers;
gēns maxima Germānōrum, the largest tribe of the Germans;
prīmus omnium, the first of all.
a. Yet instead of the Genitive of the Whole we often find ex or dē with the Ablative, regularly so with Cardinal numbers and quīdam; as,—
fidēlissimus dē servīs, the most trusty of the slaves;
quīdam ex amīcīs, certain of his friends;
ūnus ex mīlitibus, one of the soldiers.
b. In English we often use of where there is no relation of whole to part. In such cases the Latin is more exact, and does not use the Genitive; as,—
quot vōs estis, how many of you are there?
trecentī conjūrāvimus, three hundred of us have conspired (i.e. we, three hundred in number).
2. The Genitive of the Whole is used also with the Nominative or Accusative Singular Neuter of Pronouns, or of Adjectives used substantively; also with the Adverbs parum, satis, and partim when used substantively; as,—
quid cōnsilī, what purpose?
tantum cibī, so much food;
plūs auctōritātis, more authority;
minus labōris, less labor;
satis pecūniae, enough money;
parum industriae, too little industry.
a. An Adjective of the second declension used substantively may be employed as a Genitive of the Whole; as, nihil bonī, nothing good.
b. But Adjectives of the third declension agree directly with the noun they limit; as, nihil dulcius, nothing sweeter.
3. Occasionally we find the Genitive of the Whole dependent upon Adverbs of place; as,—
ubi terrārum? ubi gentium? where in the world?
a. By an extension of this usage the Genitive sometimes occurs in dependence upon prīdiē and postrīdiē, but only in the phrases prīdiē ejus diēī, on the day before that; postrīdiē ejus diēī, on the day after that.
202. Appositional Genitive. The Genitive sometimes has the force of an appositive; as,—
nōmen rēgis, the name of king;
poena mortis, the penalty of death;
ars scrībendī, the art of writing.
203. Genitive of Quality. The Genitive modified by an Adjective is used to denote quality. This construction presents several varieties. Thus it is used—
1. To denote some internal or permanent characteristic of a person or thing; as,—
vir magnae virtūtis, a man of great virtue;
ratiōnēs ejus modī, considerations of that sort.
a. Only a limited number of Adjectives occur in this construction, chiefly magnus, maximus, summus, tantus, along with ejus.
2. To denote measure (breadth, length, etc.); as,—
fossa quīndecim pedum, a trench fifteen feet wide (or deep);
exsilium decem annōrum, an exile of ten years.
3. Equivalent to the Genitive of Quality (though probably of different origin) are the Genitives tantī, quantī, parvī, magnī, minōris, plūris, minimī, plūrimī, maximī. These are used predicatively to denote indefinite value; as,—
nūlla studia tantī sunt, no studies are of so much value;
magnī opera ejus exīstimāta est, his assistance was highly esteemed.
4. By an extension of the notion of value, quantī, tantī, plūris, and minōris are also used with verbs of buying and selling, to denote indefinite price; as,—
quantī aedēs ēmistī, at how high a price did you purchase the house?
5. Any of the above varieties of the Genitive of Quality may be used predicatively; as,—
tantae mōlis erat Rōmānam condere gentem, of so great difficulty was it to found the Roman race.
GENITIVE WITH ADJECTIVES.
204. The Genitive is used with many Adjectives to limit the extent of their application. Thus:—
1. With adjectives signifying desire, knowledge, familiarity, memory, participation, power, fullness, and their opposites; as,—
studiōsus discendī, desirous of learning;
perītus bellī, skilled in war;
īnsuētus labōris, unused to toil;
immemor mandātī tuī, unmindful of your commission;
plēna perīculōrum est vīta, life is full of dangers.
a. Some participles used adjectively also take the Genitive; as,—
diligēns vēritātis, fond of truth;
amāns patriae, devoted to one's country.
2. Sometimes with proprius and commūnis; as,—
virī propria est fortitūdō, bravery is characteristic of a man.
memoria est commūnis omnium artium, memory is common to all professions.
a. proprius and commūnis are also construed with the Dative.
3. With similis the Genitive is the commoner construction in Cicero, when the reference is to living objects; as,—
fīlius patris simillimus est, the son is exactly like his father;
meī similis, like me; vestrī similis, like you.
When the reference is to things, both Genitive and Dative occur; as,—
mors somnō (or somnī) similis est, death is like sleep.
4. In the poets and later prose writers the use of the Genitive with Adjectives is extended far beyond earlier limits; as, atrōx animī, fierce of temper; incertus cōnsilī, undecided in purpose.
GENITIVE WITH VERBS.
205. The Genitive is used with the following classes of Verbs:—
206. 1. WHEN REFERRING TO PERSONS—
a. meminī always takes the Genitive of personal or reflexive pronouns; as,—
meī meminerīs, remember me!
nostrī meminit, he remembers us.
With other words denoting persons meminī takes the Accusative, rarely the Genitive; as,—
Sullam meminī, I recall Sulla;
vīvōrum meminī, I remember the living.
b. oblīvīscor regularly takes the Genitive; as,—
Epicūrī nōn licet oblīvīscī, we mustn't forget Epicurus.
2. WHEN REFERRING TO THINGS, meminī, reminīscor, oblīvīscor take sometimes the Genitive, sometimes the Accusative, without difference of meaning; as,—
animus praeteritōrum meminit, the mind remembers the past;
meministīne nōmina, do you remember the names?
reminīscere veteris incommodī, remember the former disaster;
reminīscēns acerbitātem, remembering the bitterness.
a. But neuter pronouns, and adjectives used substantively, regularly stand in the Accusative; as,—
haec meminī, I remember this;
multa reminīscor, I remember many things.
3. The phrase mihi (tibi, etc.) in mentem venit, following the analogy of meminī, takes the Genitive; as,—
mihi patriae veniēbat in mentem, I remembered my country.
207. These verbs, in addition to an Accusative of the person, occasionally take a Genitive of the thing; as,—
tē veteris amīcitiae commonefaciō, I remind you of our old friendship.
a. But more frequently (in Cicero almost invariably) these verbs take dē with the Ablative; as,—
mē admonēs dē sorōre, you remind me of your sister.
b. A neuter pronoun or adjective used substantively regularly stands in the Accusative (§ 178, 1, d); as,—
tē hōc admoneō, I give you this warning.
208. 1. Verbs of Accusing, Convicting, Acquitting take the Genitive of the charge; as,—
mē fūrtī accūsat, he accuses me of theft;
Verrem avāritiae coarguit, he convicts Verres of avarice;
impietātis absolūtus est, he was acquitted of blasphemy.
2. Verbs of Condemning take—
a. The Genitive of the charge; as,—
pecūniae pūblicae condemnātus, condemned (on the charge) of embezzlement (lit. public money);
capitis damnātus, condemned on a capital charge (lit. on a charge involving his head).
b. The Ablative of the penalty; as,—
capite damnātus est, he was condemned to death;
mīlle nummīs damnātus est, he was condemned (to pay) a thousand sesterces (lit. by a thousand sesterces, Abl. of Means).
3. Note the phrases:—
vōtī damnātus, vōtī reus, having attained one's prayer (lit. condemned on the score of one's vow);
dē vī, (accused, convicted, etc.) of assault;
inter sīcāriōs, (accused, convicted, etc.) of murder.
209. 1. The Impersonals pudet, paenitet, miseret, taedet, piget take the Accusative of the person affected, along with the Genitive of the person or thing toward whom the feeling is directed; as,—
pudet mē tuī, I am ashamed of you (lit. it shames me of you);
paenitet mē hūjus factī, I repent of this act;
eum taedet vītae, he is weary of life;
pauperum tē miseret, you pity the poor.
a. Instead of the Genitive of the thing we often find an Infinitive or Neuter Pronoun used as subject of the verb. Thus;—
mē paenitet hōc fēcisse, I repent of having done this;
mē hōc pudet, I am ashamed of this.
2. Misereor and miserēscō also govern the Genitive; as,—
miserēminī sociōrum, pity the allies.
210. With interest, it concerns, three points enter into consideration; viz.—
a) the person concerned;
b) the thing about which he is concerned;
c) the extent of his concern.
211. 1. The person concerned is regularly denoted by the Genitive; as,—
patris interest, it concerns the father.
a. But instead of the Genitive of the personal pronouns, meī, tuī, nostrī, vestrī, the Latin uses the Ablative Singular Feminine of the Possessive, viz.: meā, tuā, etc.; as,—
meā interest, it concerns me.
2. The thing about which a person is concerned is denoted—
a) by a Neuter Pronoun as subject; as,—
hōc reī pūblicae interest, this concerns the state.
b) by an Infinitive; as,—
omnium interest valēre, it concerns all to keep well.
c) by an Indirect Question; as,—
meā interest quandō veniās, I am concerned as to when you are coming.
3. The degree of concern is denoted—
a) by the Genitive (cf. § 203, 3): magnī, parvī, etc.; as,—
meā magnī interest, it concerns me greatly.
b) by the Adverbs, magnopere, magis, maximē, etc.; as,—
cīvium minimē interest, it concerns the citizens very little.
c) by the Neuters, multum, plūs, minus, etc.; as,—
multum vestrā interest, it concerns you much.
4. Rēfert follows interest in its construction, except that it rarely takes the Genitive of the person. Thus:—
meā rēfert, it concerns me;
but rarely illīus rēfert, it concerns him.
212. 1. Verbs of Plenty and Want sometimes govern the Genitive; as,—
pecūniae indigēs, you need money.
a. These verbs more commonly take the Ablative (§ 214, 1); indigeō is the only verb which has a preference for the Genitive.
2. Potior, though usually followed by the Ablative, sometimes takes the Genitive, almost always so in Sallust; and regularly in the phrase potīrī rērum, to get control of affairs.
3. In poetry some verbs take the Genitive in imitation of the Greek; as,—
dēsine querellārum, cease your complaints;
operum solūtī, freed from their tasks.
213. The Latin Ablative unites in itself three cases which were originally distinct both in form and in meaning; viz.—
The Ablative or from-case.
The Instrumental or with-case.
The Locative or where-case.
The uses of the Latin Ablative accordingly fall into Genuine Ablative uses, Instrumental uses, and Locative uses.
GENUINE ABLATIVE USES.
214. The Ablative of Separation is construed sometimes with, sometimes without, a preposition.
1. The following words regularly take the Ablative without a preposition:—
a) The Verbs of freeing: līberō, solvō, levō;
b) The Verbs of depriving: prīvō, spoliō, exuō, fraudō, nūdō;
c) The Verbs of lacking: egeō, careō, vacō;
d) The corresponding Adjectives, līber, inānis, vacuus, nūdus,
and some others of similar meaning.
cūrīs līberātus, freed from cares;
Caesar hostēs armīs exuit, Caesar stripped the enemy of their arms;
caret sēnsū commūnī, he lacks common sense;
auxiliō eget, he needs help;
bonōrum vīta vacua est metū, the life of the good is free from fear.
NOTE 1.—Yet Adjectives and līberō may take the preposition ab,—regularly so with the Ablative of persons; as,—
urbem ā tyrannō līberārunt, they freed the city from the tyrant.
NOTE 2.—Indigeō usually takes the Genitive. See § 212, 1, a.
2. Of Verbs signifying to keep from, to remove, to withdraw, some take the preposition, others omit it. The same Verb often admits both constructions. Examples:—
abstinēre cibō, to abstain from food;
hostēs fīnibus prohibuērunt, they kept the enemy from their borders;
praedōnēs ab īnsulā prohibuit, he kept the pirates from the island.
3. Other Verbs of separation usually take the Ablative with a Prepositon, particularly compounds of dis- and sē-; as,—
dissentiō ā tē, I dissent from you;
sēcernantur ā nōbīs, let them be separated from us.
4. The Preposition is freely omitted in poetry.
215. The Ablative of Source is used with the participles nātus and ortus (in poetry also with ēditus, satus, and some others), to designate parentage or station; as,—
Jove nātus, son of Jupiter;
summō locō nātus, high-born (lit. born from a very high place);
nōbilī genere ortus, born of a noble family.
1. Pronouns regularly (nouns rarely) take ex; as,
ex mē nātus, sprung from me.
2. To denote remoter descent, ortus ab, or oriundus (with or without ab), is used; as,—
ab Ulixe oriundus, descended from Ulysses.
216. The Ablative accompanied by ā (ab) is used with passive verbs to denote the personal agent; as,—
ā Caesare accūsātus est, he was arraigned by Caesar.
1. Collective nouns referring to persons, and abstract nouns when personified, may be construed as the personal agent. Thus:—
hostēs ā fortūnā dēserēbantur, the enemy were deserted by Fortune;
ā multitūdine hostium mōntēs tenēbantur, the mountains were held by a multitude of the enemy.
2. Names of animals sometimes admit the same construction. Thus:—
ā canibus laniātus est, he was torn to pieces by dogs.
217. 1. The Ablative is often used with Comparatives in the sense of than; as,—
melle dulcior, sweeter than honey;
patria mihi vītā cārior est, my country is dearer to me than life.
2. This construction, as a rule, occurs only as a substitute for quam (than) with the Nominative or Accusative. In other cases quam must be used; as,—
tuī studiōsior sum quam illīus, I am fonder of you than of him.
—Studiōsior illō would have meant, I am fonder of you than he is.
Plūs, minus, amplius, longius are often employed as the equivalents of plūs quam, minus quam, etc. Thus:—
amplius vīgintī urbēs incenduntur, more than twenty cities are fired;
minus quīnque mīlia prōcessit, he advanced less than five miles.
3. Note the use of opīniōne with Comparatives; as,—
opīniōne celerius venit, he comes more quickly than expected (lit. than opinion).
INSTRUMENTAL USES OF THE ABLATIVE.
218. The Ablative is used to denote means or instrument; as,—
Alexander sagittā vulnerātus est, Alexander was wounded by an arrow.
There are the following special varieties of this Ablative:—
1. Ūtor, fruor, fungor, potior, vescor, and their compounds take the Ablative; as,—
dīvitiīs ūtitur, he uses his wealth (lit. he benefits himself by his wealth);
vītā fruitur, he enjoys life (lit. he enjoys himself by life);
mūnere fungor, I perform my duty (lit. I busy myself with duty);
carne vescuntur, they eat flesh (lit. feed themselves by means of);
castrīs potītus est, he got possession of the camp (lit. made himself powerful by the camp).
a.. Potior sometimes governs the Genitive. See § 212, 2.
2. With opus est (rarely ūsus est), there is need; as,—
duce nōbīs opus est, we need a leader.
a. A Neuter Pronoun or Adjective often stands as subject with opus as predicate. Thus:—
hōc mihi opus est, this is necessary for me.
b. An ordinary substantive rarely stands as subject. Thus dux nōbīs opus est is a rare form of expression.
c. Note the occasional use of a perfect passive participle with opus est; as,—
opus est properātō, there is need of haste.
3. With nītor, innīxus, and frētus; as,—
nītitur hastā, he rests on a spear (lit. supports himself by a spear);
frētus virtūte, relying on virtue (lit. supported by virtue).
4. With continērī, cōnsistere, cōnstāre, consist of; as,—
nervīs et ossibus continentur, they consist of sinews and bones (lit. they are held together by sinews and bones);
mortālī cōnsistit corpore mundus, the world consists of mortal substance (lit. holds together by means of, etc.).
6. In expressions of the following type:—
quid hōc homine faciās, what can you do with this man?
quid meā Tulliolā fīet, what will become of my dear Tullia? (lit. what will be done with my dear Tullia?)
7. In the following special phrases at variance with the ordinary English idiom:—
proeliō contendere, vincere, to contend, conquer in battle;
proeliō lacessere, to provoke to battle;
currū vehī, to ride in a chariot;
pedibus īre, to go on foot;
castrīs sē tenēre, to keep in camp.
8. With Verbs of filling and Adjectives of plenty; as,—
fossās virgultīs complērunt, they filled the trenches with brush.
a. But plēnus more commonly takes the Genitive. See § 204, 1.
9. Under 'Means' belongs also the Ablative of the Way by Which; as,—
vīnum Tiberī dēvectum, wine brought down (by) the Tiber.
10. The means may be a person as well as a thing. Thus:—
mīlitibus ā lacū Lemannō ad montem Jūram mūrum perdūcit, with (i.e. by means of) his troops he runs a wall from Lake Geneva to Mt. Jura.
219. The Ablative is used to denote cause; as,—
multa glōriae cupiditāte fēcit, he did many things on account of his love of glory.
1. So especially with verbs denoting mental states; as, dēlector, gāudeō, laetor, glōrior, fīdō, cōnfīdō. Also with contentus; as,—
fortūnā amīcī gaudeō, I rejoice at the fortune of my friend (i.e. on account of it);
victōriā suā glōriantur, they exult over their victory;
nātūrā locī cōnfīdēbant, they trusted in the character of their country (lit. were confident on account of the character).
a. fīdō and cōnfīdō always take the Dative of the person (§ 187, II, a); sometimes the Dative of the thing.
2. As Ablatives of Cause are to be reckoned also such Ablatives as jussū, by order of, injussū, without the order, rogātū, etc.
220. The Ablative with cum is used to denote manner; as,—
cum gravitāte loquitur, he speaks with dignity.
1. The preposition may be absent when the Ablative is modified by an adjective; as,—
magnā gravitāte loquitur, he speaks with great dignity.
2. The preposition is regularly absent in the expressions jūre, injūriā, jocō, vī, fraude, voluntāte, fūrtō, silentiō.
3. A special variety of the Ablative of Manner denotes that in accordance with which or in pursuance of which anything is or is done. It is generally used without a preposition. Thus:—
meā sententiā, according to my opinion;
suīs mōribus, in accordance with their custom;
suā sponte, voluntarily, of his (their) own accord;
eā condiciōne, on these terms.
221. The Ablative is often used to denote an attendant circumstance of an action or an event; as,—
bonīs auspiciīs, under good auspices;
nūlla est altercātiō clāmōribus umquam habita majōribus, no debate was ever held under circumstances of greater applause;
exstinguitur ingentī lūctū prōvinciae, he dies under circumstances of great grief on the part of the province;
longō intervāllō sequitur, he follows at a great distance.
222. The Ablative with cum is used with verbs of motion to denote accompaniment; as,—
cum comitibus profectus est, he set out with his attendants;
cum febrī domum rediit, he returned home with a fever.
1. In military expressions the Ablative may stand without cum when modified by any adjective except a numeral; as,—
omnibus cōpiīs, ingentī exercitū, magnā manū; but usually cum exercitū, cum duābus legiōnibus.
222A. The Ablative is often used with verbs of joining, mixing, clinging, exchanging; also with assuēscō, cōnsuēscō, assuēfaciō, and some others to denote association; as,—
improbitās scelere jūncta, badness joined with crime;
āēr calōre admixtus, air mixed with heat;
assuētus labōre, accustomed to (lit. familiarized with) toil;
pācem bellō permūtant, they change peace for (lit. with) war.
223. The Ablative is used with comparatives and words involving comparison (as post, ante, īnfrā, suprā) to denote the degree of difference; as,—
dimidiō minor, smaller by a half;
tribus pedibus altior, three feet higher;
paulō post, a little afterwards;
quō plurā habēmus, eō cupimus ampliōra, the more we have, the more we want.
224. The Ablative, modified by an adjective, is used to denote quality; as,—
puella eximiā fōrmā, a girl of exceptional beauty;
vir singulārī industriā, a man of singular industry.
1. The Ablative of Quality may also be used predicatively; as,—
est magnā prūdentiā, he is (a man) of great wisdom;
bonō animā sunt, they are of good courage.
2. In place of the Adjective we sometimes find a limiting Genitive; as,—
sunt speciē et colōre taurī, they are of the appearance and color of a bull,
3. In poetry the Ablative of Quality sometimes denotes material; as,—
scopulīs pendentībus antrum, a cave of arching rocks.
225. With verbs of buying and selling, price is designated by the Ablative; as—
servum quīnque minīs ēmit, he bought the slave for five minae.
1. The Ablatives magnō, plūrimō, parvō, minimō (by omission of pretiō) are used to denote indefinite price; as,—
aedēs magnō vēndidīt, he sold the house for a high price.
2. For the Genitive of Indefinite Price, see § 203, 4.
226. The Ablative of Specification is used to denote that in respect to which something is or is done; as,—
Helvētiī omnibus Gallīs virtūte praestābant, the Helvetians surpassed all the Gauls in valor;
pede claudus, lame in his foot.
1. Note the phrases:—
major nātū, older (lit. greater as to age);
minor nātū, younger.
2. Here belongs the use of the Ablative with dignus, worthy, indignus, unworthy, and dignor, deem worthy of; as,—
dignī honōre, worthy of honor (i.e. in point of honor);
fidē indignī, unworthy of confidence;
mē dignor honōre, I deem myself worthy of honor.
227. The Ablative Absolute is grammatically independent of the rest of the sentence. In its commonest form it consists of a noun or pronoun limited by a participle; as,—
urbe captā, Aenēās fūgit, when the city had been captured, Aeneas fled (lit. the city having been captured).
1. Instead of a participle we often find an adjective or noun; as,—
vīvō Caesare rēs pūblica salva erat, while Caesar was alive the state was safe (lit. Caesar being alive);
Tarquiniō rēge, Pythagorās in Italiam vēnit, in the reign of Tarquin Pythagoras came into Italy (lit. Tarquin being king);
Cn. Pompejō, M. Crassō cōnsulibus, in the consulship of Gnaeus Pompey and Marcus Crassus (lit. P. and C. being consuls).
2. The Ablative Absolute is generally used in Latin where in English we employ subordinate clauses. Thus the Ablative Absolute may correspond to a clause denoting—
a) Time, as in the foregoing examples.
b) Condition; as,—
omnēs virtūtēs jacent, voluptāte dominante, all virtues lie prostrate, if pleasure is master.
c) Opposition; as,—
perditīs omnibus rēbus, virtūs sē sustentāre potest, though everything else is lost, yet Virtue can maintain herself.
d) Cause; as,—
nūllō adversante rēgnum obtinuit, since no one opposed him, he secured the throne.
e) Attendant circumstance; as,—
passīs palmīs pācem petīvērunt, with hands outstretched, they sued for peace.
3. An Infinitive or clause sometimes occurs in the Ablative Absolute construction, especially in Livy and later writers; as,—
audītō eum fūgisse, when it was heard that he had fled.
4. A noun or pronoun stands in the Ablative Absolute construction only when it denotes a different person or thing from any in the clause in which it stands. Exceptions to this principle are extremely rare.
LOCATIVE USES OF THE ABLATIVE.
A. Place where.
228. The place where is regularly denoted by the Ablative with a preposition; as,—
in urbe habitat, he dwells in the city.
1. But certain words stand in the Ablative without a preposition; viz.—
a) Names of towns,—except Singulars of the First and Second Declensions (see § 232, 1); as,—
Carthāginī, at Carthage;
Athēnis, at Athens;
Vejīs, at Veii.
b) The general words locō, locīs, parte; also many words modified by tōtus or even by other Adjectives; as,—
hōc locō, at this place;
tōtīs castrīs, in the whole camp.
c) The special words: forīs, out of doors; rūrī, in the country, terrā marīque, on land and sea.
d) The poets freely omit the preposition with any word denoting place; as,—
stant lītore puppēs, the sterns rest on the beach.
B. Place from which.
229. Place from which is regularly denoted by the Ablative with a preposition; as,—
ab Italiā profectus est, he set out from Italy;
ex urbe rediit, he returned from the city.
1. But certain words stand in the Ablative without a preposition; viz.—
a) Names of towns and small islands; as,—
Rōma profectus est, he set out from Rome;
Rhodō revertit, he returned from Rhodes.
b) domō, from home; rūre, from the country.
c) Freely in poetry; as,—
Italiā dēcessit, he withdrew from Italy.
2. With names of towns, ab is used to mean from the vicinity of, or to denote the point whence distance is measured; as,—
ā Gergoviā discessit, he withdrew from the vicinity of Gergovia;
ā Rōmā X mīlia aberat, he was ten miles distant from Rome.
Urbe and oppidō, when standing in apposition with a town name, are accompanied by a preposition; as,—
Curibus ex oppidō Sabīnōrum, from Cures, a town of the Sabines
A. Time at which.
230. The Ablative is used to denote the time at which; as,—
quārtā hōrā mortuus est, he died at the fourth hour;
annō septuāgēsimō cōnsul creātus, elected consul in his seventieth year.
1. Any word denoting a period of time may stand in this construction, particularly annus, vēr, aestās, hiems, diēs, nox, hōra, comitia (Election Day), lūdī (the Games), etc.
2. Words not denoting time require the preposition in, unless accompanied by a modifier. Thus:—
in pāce, in peace; in bellō, in war;
but secundō bellō Pūnicō, in the second Punic War.
3. Expressions like in eō tempore, in summa senectūte, take the preposition because they denote situation rather than time.
B. Time within which.
231. Time within which is denoted by the Ablative either with or without a preposition; as,—
stella Sāturnī trīgintā annīs cursum cōnficit, the planet Saturn completes its orbit within thirty years;
ter in annō, thrice in the course of the year.
1. Occasionally the Ablative denotes duration of time; as,—
bienniō prōsperās rēs habuit, for two years he had a prosperous administration.
232. The Locative case occurs chiefly in the following words:—
1. Regularly in the Singular of names of towns and small islands of the first and second declensions, to denote the place in which; as,—
|Rōmae, at Rome;||Corinthī, at Corinth;|
|Rhodī, at Rhodes.|
2. In the following special forms:—
|domī, at home;||humī, on the ground;|
|bellī, in war;||mīlitiae, in war;|
|vesperī, at evening;||herī, yesterday.|
3. Note the phrase pendēre animī, lit. to be in suspense in one's mind.
4. For urbs and oppidum in apposition with a Locative, see § 169, 4.
233. 1. The word with which an Adjective agrees is called its Subject.
2. Attributive and Predicate Adjectives. An Attributive Adjective is one that limits its subject directly; as,—
vir sapiēns, a wise man.
A Predicate Adjective is one that limits its subject through the medium of a verb (usually esse); as,—
vir est sapiēns, the man is wise;
vir vidēbātur sapiēns, the man seemed wise;
vir jūdicātus est sapiēns, the man was judged wise;
hunc virum sapientem jūdicāvimus, we adjudged this man wise.
3. Participles and Adjective Pronouns have the construction of Adjectives.
234. Agreement with One Noun. When an Adjective limits one noun it agrees with it in Gender, Number, and Case.
1. Two Adjectives in the Singular may limit a noun in the Plural, as; prīma et vīcēsima legiōnēs, the first and twentieth legions.
2. A Predicate Adjective may stand in the Neuter when its Subject is Masculine or Feminine and denotes a thing; as,—
omnium rērum mors est extrēmum, death is the end of all things.
235. Agreement with Two or More Nouns.
A. AGREEMENT AS TO NUMBER.
1. When the Adjective is Attributive, it regularly agrees in number with the nearest noun; as,—
pater tuus et māter, your father and mother;
eadem alacritās et studium, the same eagerness and zeal.
2. When the Adjective is Predicative, it is regularly Plural; as,—
pāx et concordia sunt pulchrae, peace and concord are glorious.
B. AGREEMENT AS TO GENDER.
1. When the Adjective is Attributive, it regularly agrees in gender with the nearest noun; as,—
rēs operae multae ac labōris, a matter of much effort and labor.
2. When the Adjective is Predicative—
a) If the nouns are of the same gender, the Adjective agrees with them in gender; as,—
pater et fīlius captī sunt, father and son were captured.
Yet with feminine abstract nouns, the Adjective is more frequently Neuter; as,—
stultitia et timiditās fugienda sunt, folly and cowardice must be shunned.
b) If the nouns are of different gender; then,—
α) In case they denote persons, the Adjective is Masculine; as,—
pater et māter mortuī sunt, the father and mother have died.
β) In case they denote things, the Adjective is Neuter; as,—
honōrēs et victōriae fortuīta sunt, honors and victories are accidental.
γ) In case they include both persons and things, the Adjective is,—
αα) Sometimes Masculine; as,—
domus, uxor, līberī inventī sunt, home, wife, and children are secured.
ββ) Sometimes Neuter; as,—
parentēs, līberōs, domōs vīlia habēre, to hold parents, children, houses cheap.
γγ) Sometimes it agrees with the nearest noun; as,—
populī prōvinciaeque līberātae sunt, nations and provinces were liberated.
c) Construction according to Sense. Sometimes an Adjective does not agree with a noun according to strict grammatical form, but according to sense; as,—
pars bēstiīs objectī sunt, part (of the men) were thrown to beasts.
236. 1. PLURAL ADJECTIVES USED SUBSTANTIVELY. Adjectives are quite freely used as Substantives in the Plural. The Masculine denotes persons; the Neuter denotes things; as,—
|doctī, scholars;||parva, small things;|
|malī, the wicked;||magna, great things;|
|Graecī, the Greeks;||ūtilia, useful things;|
|nostrī, our men.|
2. Neuter Plural Adjectives thus used are confined mainly to the Nominative and Accusative cases. Such forms as magnōrum, omnium; magnīs, omnibus, would ordinarily lead to ambiguity; yet where there is no ambiguity, they sometimes occur; as,—
parvīs compōnere magna, to compare great things with small
Otherwise the Latin says: magnārum rērum, magnīs rēbus, etc.
237. SINGULAR ADJECTIVES USED SUBSTANTIVELY. Adjectives are less freely used as Substantives in the Singular than in the Plural.
1. Masculine Adjectives occur only occasionally in this use; as,—
probus invidet nēminī, the honest man envies nobody.
a. Usually vir, homō, or some similar word is employed; as,—
homō doctus, a scholar;
vir Rōmānus, a Roman.
b. But when limited by a pronoun any adjective may be so used; as,—
hīc doctus, this scholar;
doctus quīdam, a certain scholar.
2. Neuters are likewise infrequent; as,—
a. This substantive use of Neuter Singulars is commonest in the construction of the Genitive of the Whole, and after Prepositions; as,—
aliquid vērī, something true;
nihil novī, nothing new;
in mediō, in the midst.
238. From Adjectives which, like the above, occasionally admit the substantive use, must be carefully distinguished certain others which have become nouns; as,—
|adversārius, opponent;||hīberna, winter quarters;|
|aequālis, contemporary;||propinquus, relative;|
|amīcus, friend;||socius, partner;|
|cognātus, kinsman;||sodālis, comrade;|
|vīcīnus, neighbor; etc.|
239. The Latin often uses an Adjective where the English idiom employs an Adverb or an adverbial phrase; as,—
senātus frequēns convēnit, the senate assembled in great numbers;
fuit assiduus mēcum, he was constantly with me.
240. 1. The Comparative often corresponds to the English Positive with 'rather,' 'somewhat,' 'too'; as,—
senectūs est loquācior, old age is rather talkative.
2. So the Superlative often corresponds to the Positive with 'very'; as,—
vir fortissimus, a very brave man.
3. Strengthening Words. Vel and quam are often used with the Superlative as strengthening particles, vel with the force of 'very,' and quam with the force of 'as possible'; as,—
vel maximus, the very greatest;
quam maximae cōpiae, as great forces as possible.
4. Phrases of the type 'more rich than brave' regularly take the Comparative in both members; as,—
exercitus erat dītior quam fortior, the army was more rich than brave.
241. 1. Certain Adjectives may be used to denote a part of an object, chiefly prīmus, extrēmus, summus, medius, īnfimus, īmus; as,—
summus mōns, the top of the mountain;
extrēmā hieme, in the last part of the winter.
2. Prior, prīmus, ultimus, and postrēmus are frequently equivalent to a relative clause; as,—
prīmus eam vīdī, I was the first who saw her;
ultimus dēcessit, he was the last who withdrew.
3. When multus and another adjective both limit the same noun et is generally used; as,—
multae et magnae cōgitātiōnēs, many (and) great thoughts.
242. 1. The Personal Pronouns as subjects of verbs are, as a rule, not expressed except for the purpose of emphasis, contrast, or clearness. Thus ordinarily:—
videō, I see; amat, he loves.
But ego tē videō, et tū mē vidēs, I see you, and you see me.
2. The Genitives meī, tuī, nostrī, vestrī are used only as Objective Genitives; nostrum and vestrum as Genitives of the Whole. Thus:—
memor tuī, mindful of you;
dēsīderium vestrī, longing for you;
nēmō vestrum, no one of you.
a. But nostrum and vestrum are regularly used in the place of the Possessive in the phrases omnium nostrum, omnium vestrum.
3. The First Plural is often used for the First Singular of Pronouns and Verbs. Compare the Eng. editorial 'we.'
4. When two Verbs govern the same object, the Latin does not use a pronoun with the second, as is the rule in English. Thus:—
virtūs amīcitiās conciliat et cōnservat, virtue establishes friendships and maintains them (not eās cōnservat).
243. 1. The Possessive Pronouns, as a rule, are not employed except for the purpose of clearness. Thus:—
patrem amō, I love my father;
dē fīliī morte flēbās, you wept for the death of your son.
dē morte fīliī meī flēbās, you wept for the death of my son.
a. When expressed merely for the sake of clearness, the possessive usually stands after its noun; but in order to indicate emphasis or contrast, it precedes; as,—
suā manū līberōs occīdit, with his own hand he slew his children;
meā quidem sententiā, in my opinion at least.
2. Sometimes the Possessive Pronouns are used with the force of an Objective Genitive; as,—
metus vester, fear of you;
dēsīderium tuum, longing for you.
3. For special emphasis, the Latin employs ipsīus or ipsōrum, in apposition with the Genitive idea implied in the Possessive; as,—
meā ipsīus operā, by my own help;
nostrā ipsōrum operā, by our own help.
a. So sometimes other Genitives; as,—
meā ūnīus operā, by the assistance of me alone.
244. 1. The Reflexive Pronoun sē and the Possessive Reflexive suus have a double use:—
I. They may refer to the subject of the clause (either principal or subordinate) in which they stand,—'Direct Reflexives'; as,—
sē amant, they love themselves;
suōs amīcōs adjuvāt, he helps his own friends;
eum ōrāvī, ut sē servāret, I besought him to save himself.
II. They may stand in a subordinate clause and refer to the subject of the principal clause,—'Indirect Reflexives'; as,—
mē ōrāvit ut sē dēfenderem, he besought me to defend him (lit. that I defend himself);
mē ōrāvērunt, ut fortūnārum suārum dēfēnsiōnem susciperem, they besought me to undertake the defense of their fortunes.
a. The Indirect Reflexive is mainly restricted to those clauses which express the thought, not of the author, but of the subject of the principal clause.
2. The Genitive suī is regularly employed, like meī and tuī, as an Objective Genitive, e.g. oblītus suī, forgetful of himself; but it occasionally occurs—particularly in post-Augustan writers—in place of the Possessive suus; as, fruitur fāmā suī, he enjoys his own fame.
3. Sē and suus are sometimes used in the sense, one's self, one's own, where the reference is not to any particular person; as,—
sē amāre, to love one's self;
suum genium propitiāre, to propitiate one's own genius.
4. Suus sometimes occurs in the meaning his own, their own, etc., referring not to the subject but to an oblique case; as,—
Hannibalem suī cīvēs ē cīvitāte ējēcērunt, his own fellow-citizens drove out Hannibal.
a. This usage is particularly frequent in combination with quisque; as,—
suus quemque error vexat, his own error troubles each.
5. The Reflexives for the first and second persons are supplied by the oblique cases of ego and tū (§ 85); as,—
vōs dēfenditis, you defend yourselves.
245. 1. The Latin has no special reciprocal pronoun ('each other'), but expresses the reciprocal notion by the phrases: inter nōs, inter vōs, inter sē; as,—
Belgae obsidēs inter sē dedērunt, the Belgae gave each other hostages (lit. among themselves);
amāmus inter nōs, we love each other;
Gallī inter sē cohortātī sunt, the Gauls exhorted each other.
a. Note that the Object is not expressed in sentences of this type.
246. 1. Where hīc and ille are used in contrast, hīc usually refers to the latter of two objects, and ille to the former.
2. Hīc and ille are often used in the sense of 'the following'; as,—
Themistoclēs hīs verbīs epistulam mīsit, Themistocles sent a letter (couched) in the following words;
illud intellegō, omnium ōra in mē conversa esse, I understand this, that the faces of all are turned toward me.
3. Ille often means the famous; as, Solōn ille, the famous Solon.
4. Iste frequently involves contempt; as, iste homō, that fellow!
5. The above pronouns, along with is, are usually attracted to the gender of a predicate noun; as, hīc est honor, meminisse officium suum, this is an honor, to be mindful of one's duty.
247. 1. Is often serves as the antecedent of the relative quī. Thus:—
Maximum, eum quī Tarentum recēpit, dīlēxī, I loved Maximus, the man who retook Tarentum.
a. Closely akin to this usage is is in the sense of such (= tālis); as,—
nōn sum is quī terrear, I am not such a person as to be frightened.
b. Note the phrase id quod, where id stands in apposition with an entire clause; as,—
nōn suspicābātur (id quod nunc sentiet) satis multōs testēs nōbīs reliquōs esse, he did not suspect (a thing which he will now perceive) that we had witnesses enough left.
Yet quod alone, without preceding id, sometimes occurs in this use.
2. Is also in all cases serves as the personal pronoun of the third person, 'he,' 'she,' 'it,' 'they,' 'them.'
3. When the English uses 'that of,' 'those of,' to avoid repetition of the noun, the Latin omits the pronoun: as,—
in exercitū Sullae et posteā in Crassī fuerat, he had been in the army of Sulla and afterward in that of Crassus;
nūllae mē fābulae dēlectant nisi Plautī, no plays delight me except those of Plautus.
4. Note the phrases et is, et ea, etc., in the sense: and that too; as,—
vincula, et ea sempiterna, imprisonment, and that too permanently.
248. 1. Īdem in apposition with the subject or object often has the force of also, likewise; as,—
quod idem mihi contigit, which likewise happened to me (lit. which, the same thing);
bonus vir, quem eundem sapientem appellāmus, a good man, whom we call also wise.
For īdem atque (ac), the same as, see § 341, 1. c.
249. 1. Ipse, literally self, acquires its special force from the context; as,—
eō ipsō diē, on that very day;
ad ipsam rīpam, close to the bank;
ipsō terrōre, by mere fright;
valvae sē ipsae aperuērunt, the doors opened of their own accord;
ipse aderat, he was present in person.
2. The reflexive pronouns are often emphasized by the addition of ipse, but ipse in such cases, instead of standing in apposition with the reflexive, more commonly agrees with the subject; as,—
sēcum ipsī loquuntur, they talk with themselves;
sē ipse continēre nōn potest, he cannot contain himself
3. Ipse is also used as an Indirect Reflexive for the purpose of marking a contrast or avoiding an ambiguity; as,—
Persae pertimuērunt nē Alcibiadēs ab ipsīs dēscīsceret et cum suīs in grātiam redīret, the Persians feared that Alcibiades would break with them and become reconciled with his countrymen;
ea molestissimē ferre dēbent hominēs quae ipsōrum culpā contrācta sunt, men ought to chafe most over those things which have been brought about by their own fault (as opposed to the fault of others).
250. Agreement. 1. The Relative Pronoun agrees with its antecedent in Gender, Number, and Person, but its case is determined by its construction in the clause in which it stands; as,—
mulier quam vidēbāmus, the woman whom we saw;
bona quibus fruimur, the blessings which we enjoy.
2. Where the antecedent is compound, the same principles for number and gender prevail as in case of predicate adjectives under similar conditions (see § 235, B, 2). Thus:—
pater et fīlius, qui captī sunt, the father and son who were captured;
stultitia et timiditās quae fugienda sunt, folly and cowardice which must be shunned;
honōrēs et victōriae quae sunt fortuīta, honors and victories, which are accidental.
3. The Relative regularly agrees with a predicate noun (either Nominative or Accusative) instead of its antecedent; as,—
carcer, quae lautumiae vocantur, the prison, which is called Lautumiae;
Belgae, quae est tertia pars, the Belgians, who are the third part.
4. Sometimes the Relative takes its gender and number from the meaning of its antecedent; as,—
pars quī bēstiīs objectī sunt, a part (of the men) who were thrown to beasts.
5. Occasionally the Relative is attracted into the case of its antecedent; as,—
nātus eō patre quō dīxī, born of the father that I said.
251. Antecedent. 1. The antecedent of the Relative is sometimes omitted; as,—
quī nātūram sequitur sapiēns est, he who follows Nature is wise.
2. The antecedent may be implied in a possessive pronoun (or rarely an adjective); as,—
nostra quī remānsimus caedēs, the slaughter of us who remained;
servīlī tumultū, quōs ūsus ac disciplīna sublevārunt, at the uprising of the slaves, whom experience and discipline assisted (servīlī = servōrum).
3. Sometimes the antecedent is repeated with the Relative; as,—
erant itinera duo, quibus itineribus, there were two routes, by which (routes).
4. Incorporation of Antecedent in Relative Clause. The antecedent is often incorporated in the relative clause. Thus:—
a) When the relative clause stands first; as,—
quam quisque nōvit artem, in hāc sē exerceat, let each one practice the branch which he knows.
b) When the antecedent is an appositive; as,—
nōn longē ā Tolōsātium fīnibus absunt, quae cīvitās est in prōvinciā, they are not far from the borders of the Tolosates, a state which is in our province.
c) When the logical antecedent is a superlative; as,—
Themistoclēs dē servīs suīs, quem habuit fidēlissimum, mīsit, Themistocles sent the most trusty slave he had.
d) In expressions of the following type—
quā es prūdentiā; quae tua est prūdentia, such is your prudence (lit. of which prudence you are; which is your prudence).
5. The Relative is never omitted in Latin as it is in English. Thus the boy I saw must be puer quem vīdī.
6. The Relative is used freely in Latin, particularly at the beginning of a sentence, where in English we employ a demonstrative; as,—
quō factum est, by this it happened;
quae cum ita sint, since this is so;
quibus rēbus cognitīs, when these things became known.
7. The Relative introducing a subordinate clause may belong grammatically to a clause which is subordinate to the one it introduces; as,—
numquam dignē satis laudārī philosophia poterit, cui quī pāreat, omne tempus aetātis sine molestiā possit dēgere, philosophy can never be praised enough, since he who obeys her can pass every period of life without annoyance (lit. he who obeys which, etc.).
Here cui introduces the subordinate clause possit and connects it with philosophia; but cui is governed by pāreat, which is subordinate to possit.
252. 1. Quis, any one, is the weakest of the Indefinites, and stands usually in combination with sī, nisi, nē, num; as,—
sī quis putat, if any one thinks.
2. Aliquis (adj. aliquī) is more definite than quis, and corresponds usually to the English some one, somebody, some; as,—
nunc aliquis dīcat mihī, now let somebody tell me;
utinam modo agātur aliquid, oh that something may be done.
3. Quīdam, a certain one, is still more definite than aliquis; as,—
homō quīdam, a certain man (i.e., one whom I have in mind).
a. Quīdam (with or without quasi, as if) is sometimes used in the sense: a sort of, kind of; as,—
cognātiō quaedam, a sort of relationship;
mors est quasi quaedam migrātiō, death is a kind of transfer as it were.
4. Quisquam, any one, any one whoever (more general than quis), and its corresponding adjective ūllus, any, occur mostly in negative and conditional sentences, in interrogative sentences implying a negative, and in clauses of comparison; as,—
jūstitia numquam nocet cuiquam, justice never harms anybody;
sī quisquam, Catō sapiēns fuit, if anybody was ever wise, Cato was;
potestne quisquam sine perturbātiōne animī īrāscī, can anybody be angry without excitement?
sī ūllō modō poterit, if it can be done in any way;
taetrior hīc tyrannus fuit quam quisquam superiōrum, he was a viler tyrant than any of his predecessors.
5. Quisque, each one, is used especially under the following circumstances:—
a) In connection with suus. See § 244, 4, a.
b) In connection with a Relative or Interrogative Pronoun; as,—
quod cuique obtigit, id teneat, what falls to each, that let him hold.
c) In connection with superlatives; as,—
optimus quisque, all the best (lit. each best one).
d) With ordinal numerals; as,—
quīntō quōque annō, every four years (lit. each fifth year).
6. Nēmō, no one, in addition to its other uses, stands regularly with adjectives used substantively; as,—
nēmō mortālis, no mortal;
nēmō Rōmānus, no Roman.
253. 1. Alius, another, and alter, the other, are often used correlatively; as,—
aliud loquitur, aliud sentit, he says one thing, he thinks another;
aliī resistunt, aliī fugiunt, some resist, others flee;
alter exercitum perdidit, alter vēndidit, one ruined the army, the other sold it;
alterī sē in montem recēpērunt, alterī ad impedīmenta sē contulērunt, the one party retreated to the mountain, the others betook themselves to the baggage.
2. Where the English says one does one thing, another another, the Latin uses a more condensed form of statement; as,—
alius aliud amat, one likes one thing, another another;
aliud aliīs placet, one thing pleases some, another others.
a. So sometimes with adverbs; as,—
aliī aliō fugiunt, some flee in one direction, others in another.
3. The Latin also expresses the notion 'each other' by means of alius repeated; as,—
Gallī alius alium cohortātī sunt, the Gauls encouraged each other.
4. Cēterī means the rest, all the others; as,—
cēterīs praestāre, to be superior to all the others.
5. Reliquī means the others in the sense of the rest, those remaining,—hence is the regular word with numerals; as,—
reliquī sex, the six others.
6. Nescio quis forms a compound indefinite pronoun with the force of some one or other; as,—
causidicus nescio quis, some pettifogger or other;
mīsit nescio quem, he sent some one or other;
nescio quō pactō, somehow or other.
254. 1. Agreement in Number and Person. A Finite Verb agrees with its subject in Number and Person; as,—
vōs vidētis, you see;
pater fīliōs īnstituit, the father trains his sons.
2. Agreement in Gender. In the compound forms of the verb the participle regularly agrees with its subject in gender; as,—
sēditiō repressa est, the mutiny was checked.
3. But when a predicate noun is of different gender or number from its subject, the verb usually agrees with its nearest substantive; as,—
Tarquiniī māterna patria erat, Tarquinii was his native country on his mother's side;
nōn omnis error stultitia est dīcenda, not every error is to be called folly.
a. Less frequently the verb agrees with an appositive; as,—
Coriolī, oppidum Volscōrum, captum est, Corioli, a town of the Volsci, was captured.
4. Construction according to Sense. Sometimes the verb agrees with its subject according to sense instead of strict grammatical form. Thus:—
a) In Number; as,—
multitūdō hominum convēnerant, a crowd of men had gathered.
b) In Gender; as,—
duo mīlia crucibus adfīxī sunt, two thousand (men) were crucified.
255. 1. Agreement in Number. With two or more subjects the verb is regularly plural; as,—
pater et fīlius mortuī sunt, the father and son died.
2. But sometimes the verb agrees with the nearest subject; viz.,—
a) When the verb precedes both subjects or stands between them; as,—
mortuus est pater et fīlius;
pater mortuus est et fīlius.
b) When the subjects are connected by aut; aut ... aut; vel ... vel; neque ... neque; as,—
neque pater neque fīlius mortuus est, neither father nor son died.
3. When the different subjects are felt together as constituting a whole, the singular is used; as,—
temeritās ignōrātiōque vitiōsa est, rashness and ignorance are bad.
a. This is regularly the case in senātus populusque Rōmānus.
4. Agreement in Person. With compound subjects of different persons the verb always takes the first person rather than the second, and the second rather than the third; as,—
sī tū et Tullia valētis, ego et Cicerō valēmus, if you and Tullia are well, Cicero and I are well.
5. Agreement in Gender. With subjects of different genders the participle in the compound tenses follows the same principles as laid down for predicate adjectives. See § 235, B, 2.
256. 1. The Passive Voice sometimes retains traces of its original middle or reflexive meaning; as,—
ego nōn patiar eum dēfendī, I shall not allow him to defend himself.
2. In imitation of Greek usage many perfect passive participles are used by the poets as indirect middles, i.e. the subject is viewed as acting not upon itself, but as doing something in his own interest; as,—
vēlātus tempora, having veiled his temples.
a. Occasionally finite forms of the verb are thus used; as,—
tunicā indūcitur artūs, he covers his limbs with a tunic.
3. Intransitive Verbs may be used impersonally in the passive; as,—
curritur, people run (lit. it is run);
ventum est, he (they, etc.) came (lit. it was come).
TENSES OF THE INDICATIVE.
257. 1. The Latin tenses express two distinct notions:—
a) The period of time to which the action belongs: Present, Past, or Future.
b) The kind of action: Undefined, Going on, or Completed.
The Latin with its six tenses is able to express each of the three kinds of action for each of the three periods of time (making practically nine tenses). It does this by employing certain tenses in more than one way, as may be seen by the following table:—
|KIND OF ACTION.||PERIOD OF TIME.|
scrībō, I write.
scrīpsī, I wrote.
scrībam, I shall write.
scrībō, I am writing.
scrībēbam, I was writing.
scrībam, I shall be writing.
scrīpsī, I have written.
scrīpseram, I had written.
scrīpserō, I shall have written.
2. It will be seen that the Present may express Undefined action or action Going on; so also the Future. The Perfect likewise has a double use, according as it denotes action Completed in present time (Present Perfect) or Undefined action belonging to past time (Historical Perfect).
258. Tenses which denote Present or Future time are called Principal (or Primary) Tenses, those which denote Past time are called Historical (or Secondary).
The Principal Tenses of the Indicative are: Present, Future, Present Perfect, Future Perfect.
The Historical Tenses are: Imperfect, Historical Perfect, Pluperfect.
259. Besides the two uses indicated in the table, the Present Indicative presents the following peculiarities:—
1. It is used to denote a general truth, i.e. something true not merely in the present but at all times ('Gnomic Present'); as,—
virtūs conciliat amīcitiās et cōnservat, virtue establishes ties of friendship and maintains them (i.e. always does so).
2. It is used of an attempted action ('Conative Present'); as,—
dum vītant vitia, in contrāria currunt, while they try to avoid (vītant) vices, they rush into opposite ones.
3. In lively narration the Present is often used of a past action ('Historical Present'); as,—
Caesar imperat magnum numerum obsidum, Caesar demanded a large number of hostages (lit. demands).
4. In combination with jam, jam diū, jam prīdem, and similar words, the Present is frequently used of an action originating in the past and continuing in the present; as,—
jam prīdem cupiō tē vīsere, I have long been desiring to visit you (i.e. I desire and have long desired).
260. 1. The Imperfect primarily denotes action going on in past time; as,—
librum legēbam, I was reading a book.
a. This force makes the Imperfect especially adapted to serve as the tense of description (as opposed to mere narration).
2. From the notion of action going on, there easily develops the notion of repeated or customary action; as,—
lēgātōs interrogābat, he kept asking the envoys;
C. Duīlium vidēbam puer, as a boy I often used to see Gaius Duilius.
3. The Imperfect often denotes an attempted action ('Conative Imperfect') or an action as beginning ('Inceptive Imperfect'); as,—
hostēs nostrōs intrā mūnītiōnēs prōgredī prohibēbant, the enemy tried to prevent (prohibēbant) our men from advancing within the fortifications ('Conative');
ad proelium sē expediēbant, they were beginning to get ready for battle ('Inceptive').
4. The Imperfect, with jam, jam diū, jam dūdum, etc., is sometimes used of an action which had been continuing some time; as,—
domicilium Rōmae multōs jam annōs habēbat, he had had his residence at Rome for many years (i.e. he had it at this time and had long had it).
261. 1. The Latin is much more exact in the use of the Future than is the English. We say: 'If he comes, I shall be glad,' where we really mean: 'If he shall come,' etc. In such cases the Latin rarely admits the Present, but generally employs the Future.
2. Sometimes the Future has Imperative force; as, dīcēs, say!
262. A. PRESENT PERFECT. Several Present Perfects denote the state resulting from a completed act, and so seem equivalent to the Present; as,—
nōvī, cognōvī, I know (lit. I have become acquainted with);
cōnsuēvī, I am wont (lit. I have become accustomed).
B. HISTORICAL PERFECT. The Historical Perfect is the tense of narration (as opposed to the Imperfect, the tense of description); as,—
Rēgulus in senātum vēnit, mandāta exposuit, reddī captivōs negāvit esse ūtile, Regulus came into the Senate, set forth his commission, said it was useless for captives to be returned.
1. Occasionally the Historical Perfect is used of a general truth ('Gnomic Perfect').
263. The Latin Pluperfect, like the English Past Perfect, denotes an act completed in the past; as,—
Caesar Rhēnum trānsīre dēcrēverat, sed nāvēs deerant, Caesar had decided to cross the Rhine, but had no boats.
a. In those verbs whose Perfect has Present force (§ 262, A), the Pluperfect has the force of an Imperfect; as,—
nōveram, I knew.
264. The Future Perfect denotes an action completed in future time. Thus:—
scrībam epistulam, cum redieris, I will write the letter when you have returned (lit. when you shall have returned).
a. The Latin is much more exact in the use of the Future Perfect than the English, which commonly employs the Present Perfect instead of the Future Perfect.
b. In those verbs whose Perfect has Present force (§ 262, A) the Future Perfect has the force of a Future; as,—
nōverō, I shall know.
265. In letters the writer often uses tenses which are not appropriate at the time of writing, but which will be so at the time when his letter is received; he thus employs the Imperfect and the Perfect for the Present, and the Pluperfect for the Present Perfect; as,—
nihil habēbam quod scrīberem, neque enim novī quidquam audieram et ad tuās omnēs epistulās jam rescrīpseram, I have nothing to write, for I have heard no news and have already answered all your letters.
TENSES OF THE SUBJUNCTIVE.
266. A. In Independent sentences. See §§ 272-280.
B. In Dependent Sentences. In dependent sentences the tenses of the subjunctive usually conform to the so-called
267. 1. In the Subjunctive the Present and Perfect are Principal tenses, the Imperfect and Pluperfect, Historical.
2. By the Sequence of Tenses Principal tenses are followed by Principal, Historical by Historical. Thus:—
videō quid faciās, I see what you are doing.
vidēbō quid faciās, I shall see what you are doing.
vīderō quid faciās, I shall have seen what you are doing.
videō quid fēcerīs, I see what you have done.
vidēbō quid fēcerīs, I shall see what you have done.
vīderō quid fēcerīs, I shall have seen what you have done.
vidēbam quid facerēs, I saw what you were doing.
vīdī quid facerēs, I saw what you were doing.
vīderam quid facerēs, I had seen what you were doing.
vidēbam quid fēcissēs, I saw what you had done.
vīdī quid fēcissēs, I saw what you had done.
vīderam quid fēcissēs, I had seen what you had done.
3. The Present and Imperfect Subjunctive denote incomplete action, the Perfect and Pluperfect completed action, exactly as in the Indicative.
268. 1. The Perfect Indicative is usually an historical tense (even when translated in English as a Present Perfect), and so is followed by the Imperfect and Pluperfect Subjunctive; as,—
dēmōnstrāvī quārē ad causam accēderem, I have shown why I took the case (lit. I showed why, etc.).
2. A dependent Perfect Infinitive is treated as an historical tense wherever, if resolved into an equivalent Indicative, it would be historical; as,—
videor ostendisse quālēs deī essent, I seem to have shown of what nature the gods are (ostendisse here corresponds to an Indicative, ostendī, I showed).
3. The Historical Present is sometimes regarded as a principal tense, sometimes as historical. Thus:—
Sulla suōs hortātur ut fortī animō sint, Sulla exhorts his soldiers to be stout-hearted;
Gallōs hortātur ut arma caperent, he exhorted the Gauls to take arms.
4. Conditional sentences of the 'contrary-to-fact' type are not affected by the principles for the Sequence of Tenses; as,—
honestum tāle est ut, vel sī ignōrārent id hominēs, suā tamen pulchritūdine laudabīle esset, virtue is such a thing that even if men were ignorant of it, it would still be worthy of praise for its own loveliness.
5. In conditional sentences of the 'contrary-to-fact' type the Imperfect Subjunctive is usually treated as an Historical tense; as,—
sī sōlōs eōs dīcerēs miserōs, quibus moriendum esset, nēminem tū quidem eōrum quī vīverent exciperēs, if you called only those wretched who must die, you would except no one of those who live.
6. In clauses of Result and some others, the Perfect Subjunctive is sometimes used as an historical tense. Thus:—
rēx tantum mōtus est, ut Tissaphernem hostem jūdicārit, the king was so much moved that he adjudged Tissaphernes an enemy.
This construction is rare in Cicero, but frequent in Nepos and subsequent historians. The Perfect Subjunctive in this use represents a result simply as a fact without reference to the continuance of the act, and therefore corresponds to an Historical Perfect Indicative of direct statement. Thus, jūdicārit in the above example corresponds to adjūdicāvit, he adjudged. To denote a result as something continuous, all writers use the Imperfect Subjunctive after historical tenses.
7. Sometimes perspicuity demands that the ordinary principles of Sequence be abandoned altogether. Thus:
a) We may have the Present or Perfect Subjunctive after an historical tense; as,—
Verrēs Siciliam ita perdidit ut ea restituī nōn possit, Verres so ruined Sicily that it cannot be restored (Direct statement: nōn potest restitui);
ārdēbat Hortēnsius dīcendī cupiditāte sīc, ut in nūllō flagrantius studium vīderim, Hortensius burned so with eagerness to speak that I have seen in no one a greater desire (Direct statement: in nūllō vīdī, I have seen in no one).
NOTE.—This usage is different from that cited under 6. Here, by neglect of Sequence, the Perfect is used, though a principal tense; there the Perfect was used as an historical tense.
b) We may have a principal tense followed by the Perfect Subjunctive used historically; as,—
nesciō quid causae fuerit cūr nūllās ad mē litterās darēs, I do not know what reason there was why you did not send me a letter.
Here fuerit is historical, as is shown by the following Imperfect Subjunctive.
269. The Future and Future Perfect, which are lacking to the Latin Subjunctive, are supplied in subordinate clauses as follows:—
a) The Future is supplied by the Present after principal tenses, by the Imperfect after historical tenses.
b) The Future Perfect is supplied by the Perfect after principal tenses, by the Pluperfect after historical tenses.
This is especially frequent when the context clearly shows, by the presence of a future tense in the main clause, that the reference is to future time. Thus:—
Gallī pollicentur sē factūrōs, quae Caesar imperet, the Gauls promise they will do what Caesar shall order;
Gallī pollicēbantur sē factūrōs, quae Caesar imperāret, the Gauls promised they would do what Caesar should order;
Gallī pollicentur sē factūrōs quae Caesar imperāverit, the Gauls promise they will do what Caesar shall have ordered;
Gallī pollicēbantur sē factūrōs quae Caesar imperāvisset, the Gauls promised they would do what Caesar should have ordered.
2. Even where the context does not contain a Future tense in the main clause, Future time is often expressed in the subordinate clauses by the Present and Imperfect Subjunctive. Thus:—
timeō nē veniat, I am afraid he will come;
Caesar exspectābat quid cōnsilī hostēs caperent, Caesar was waiting to see what plan the enemy would adopt.
3. Where greater definiteness is necessary, the periphrastic forms in -ūrus sim and -ūrus essem are employed, especially in clauses of Result, Indirect Questions, and after nōn dubitō quīn; as,—
nōn dubitō quīn pater ventūrus sit, I do not doubt that my father will come;
nōn dubitābam quīn pater ventūrus esset, I did not doubt that my father would come.
4. Where the verb has no Future Active Participle, or where it stands in the passive voice, its Future character may be indicated by the use of the particles mox, brevī, statim, etc., in connection with the Present and Imperfect Subjunctive; as,—
nōn dubitō quīn tē mox hūjus reī paeniteat, I do not doubt that you will soon repent of this thing;
nōn dubitābam quīn haec rēs brevī cōnficerētur, I did not doubt that this thing would soon be fnished.
TENSES OF THE INFINITIVE.
270. 1. The tenses of the Infinitive denote time not absolutely, but with reference to the verb on which they depend. Thus:—
a) The Present Infinitive represents an act as contemporaneous with the time of the verb on which it depends; as,—
vidētur honōrēs adsequī, he seems to be gaining honors;
vidēbātur honōrēs adsequī, he seemed to be gaining honors.
b) The Perfect Infinitive represents an act as prior to the time of the verb on which it depends; as,—
vidētur honōrēs adsecūtus esse, he seems to have gained honors;
vīsus est honōrēs adsecūtus esse, he seemed to have gained honors.
c) The Future Infinitive represents an act as subsequent to that of the verb on which it depends; as,—
vidētur honōrēs adsecūtūrus esse, he seems to be about to gain honors;
vīsus est honōrēs adsecūtūrus esse, he seemed to be about to gain honors.
2. Where the English says 'ought to have done,' 'might have done,' etc., the Latin uses dēbuī, oportuit, potuī (dēbēbam, oportēbat, poteram), with the Present Infinitive; as,—
dēbuit dīcere, he ought to have said (lit. owed it to say);
opōrtuit venīre, he ought to have come;
potuit vidēre, he might have seen.
a. Oportuit, volō, nōlō (and in poetry some other verbs), may take a Perfect Infinitive instead of the Present; as,—
hōc jam prīdem factum esse oportuit, this ought long ago to have been done.
3. PERIPHRASTIC FUTURE INFINITIVE. Verbs that have no Participial Stem, express the Future Infinitive Active and Passive by fore ut or futūrum esse ut, with the Subjunctive; as,—
spērō fore ut tē paeniteat levitātis, I hope you will repent of your fickleness (lit. hope it will happen that you repent);
spērō futūrum esse ut hostēs arceantur, I hope that the enemy will be kept off.
a. The Periphrastic Future Infinitive is often used, especially in the Passive, even in case of verbs which have the Participial Stem; as,—
spērō fore ut hostēs vincantur, I hope the enemy will be conquered.
4. Passives and Deponents sometimes form a Future Perfect Infinitive with fore; as,—
spērō epistulam scrīptam fore, I hope the letter will have been written;
dīcō mē satis adeptum fore, I say that I shall have gained enough.
MOODS IN INDEPENDENT SENTENCES.
271. The Indicative is used for the statement of facts, the supposition of facts, or inquiry after facts.
1. Note the following idiomatic uses:—
a) With possum; as,—
possum multa dīcere, I might say much;
poteram multa dīcere, I might have said much (§ 270, 2).
b) In such expressions as longum est, aequum est, melius est, difficile est, ūtilius est, and some others; as,—
longum est ea dīcere, it would be tedious to tell that;
difficile est omnia persequī, it would be difficult to enumerate everything.
272. The Subjunctive is used in Independent Sentences to express something—
1. As willed—Volitive Subjunctive;
2. As desired—Optative Subjunctive;
3. Conceived of as possible—Potential Subjunctive.
273. The Volitive Subjunctive represents the action as willed. It always implies authority on the part of the speaker, and has the following varieties:—
A. HORTATORY SUBJUNCTIVE.
274. The Hortatory Subjunctive expresses an exhortation. This use is confined to the first person plural of the Present. The negative is nē. Thus:—
eāmus, let us go;
amēmus patriam, let us love our country;
nē dēspērēmus, let us not despair.
B. JUSSIVE SUBJUNCTIVE.
275. The Jussive Subjunctive expresses a command. The Jussive stands regularly in the Present Tense, and is used—
1. Most frequently in the third singular and the third plural; as,—
dīcat, let him tell;
dīcant, let them tell;
quārē sēcēdant improbī, wherefore let the wicked depart!
2. Less frequently in the second person, often with indefinite force; as,—
istō bonō ūtāre, use that advantage;
modestē vīvās, live temperately.
C. PROHIBITIVE SUBJUNCTIVE.
276. The Subjunctive is used in the second and third persons singular and plural, with nē, to express a prohibition. Both Present and Perfect occur, and without appreciable difference of meaning; as,—
nē repugnētis, do not resist!
tū vērō istam nē relīquerīs, don't leave her!
impiī nē plācāre audeant deōs, let not the impious dare to appease the gods!
a. Neither of these constructions is frequent in classical prose.
b. A commoner method of expressing a prohibition in the second person is by the use of nōlī (nōlīte) with a following infinitive, or by cavē or cavē nē with the Subjunctive; as,—
nōlī hōc facere, don't do this (lit. be unwilling to do)!
nōlīte mentīrī, do not lie!
cavē ignōscās, cavē tē misereat, do not forgive, do not pity!
cavē nē haec faciās, do not do this (lit. take care lest you do)!
D. DELIBERATIVE SUBJUNCTIVE.
277. The Deliberative Subjunctive is used in questions and exclamations implying doubt, indignation, the impossibility of an act, obligation, or propriety. The Present is used referring to present time, the Imperfect referring to past. The negative is nōn. Thus:—
quid faciam, what shall I do?
ego redeam, I go back!
huic cēdāmus! hūjus condiciōnēs audiāmus! are we to bow to him! are we to listen to his terms!
quid facerem, what was I to do?
hunc ego nōn dīligam, should I not cherish this man?
a. These Deliberative Questions are usually purely Rhetorical in character, and do not expect an answer.
E. CONCESSIVE SUBJUNCTIVE.
278. The Subjunctive is used to indicate something as granted or conceded for the sake of argument. The Present is used for present time, the Perfect regularly for past. The negative is nē. Thus:—
sit hōc vērum, I grant that this is true (lit. let this be true);
nē sint in senectūte vīrēs, I grant there is not strength in old age;
fuerit malus cīvis aliīs; tibi quandō esse coepit, I grant that he was a bad citizen to others; when did he begin to be so toward you?
279. The Optative Subjunctive occurs in expressions of wishing. The negative is regularly nē.
1. The Present Tense, often accompanied by utinam, is used where the wish is conceived of as possible.
dī istaec prohibeant, may the gods prevent that!
falsus utinam vātēs sim, oh that I may be a false prophet!
nē veniant, may they not come!
2. The Imperfect expresses, in the form of a wish, the regret that something is not so now; the Pluperfect that something was not so in the past. The Imperfect and Pluperfect are regularly accompanied by utinam; as,—
utinam istud ex animō dīcerēs, would that you were saying that in earnest (i.e. I regret that you are not saying it in earnest);
Pēlīdēs utinam vītāsset Apollinis arcūs, would that Achilles had escaped the bow of Apollo;
utinam nē nātus essem, would that I had not been born.
280. The Potential Subjunctive expresses a possibility. The negative is nōn. The following uses are to be noted:—
1. The 'May' Potential.—The Potential Subjunctive may designate a mere possibility (English auxiliary may). Both Present and Perfect occur, and without appreciable difference of meaning. Thus:—
dīcat aliquis, some one may say;
dīxerit aliquis, some one may say.
a. This construction is by no means frequent, and is confined mainly to a few phrases like those given as examples.
2. 'Should'-'Would' Potential.—The Potential Subjunctive may represent something as depending upon a condition expressed or understood (English auxiliary should, would). Both Present and Perfect occur, and without appreciable difference of meaning. Thus:—
fortūnam citius reperiās quam retineās, one would more quickly find Fortune than keep it (i.e. if one should make the trial);
crēdiderim, I should believe.
a. Here belongs the use of velim, mālim, nōlim, as softened forms of statement for volō, mālō, nōlō. Thus:—
velim mihi ignōscās, I wish you would forgive me;
nōlim putēs mē jocārī, I don't want you to think I'm joking.
b. When the condition is expressed, we get one of the regular types of Conditional Sentences (see § 303); as,—
diēs dēficiat, sī cōner ēnumerāre causās, time would fail if I should attempt to enumerate the reasons.
3. 'Can'-'Could' Potential.—In the Present and Imperfect the Potential occurs in the second person singular (with indefinite force; § 356, 3) of a few verbs of perceiving, seeing, thinking, and the like; as,—
videās, cernās, one can see, one can perceive;
crēderēs, one could believe;
vidērēs, cernerēs, one could see, perceive;
putārēs, one could imagine.
4. The Imperfect and Pluperfect in the Apodosis of conditional sentences of the contrary-to-fact type (see § 304) are also Potential in character. By omission of the Protasis, such an Apodosis sometimes stands alone, particularly vellem, nōllem, māllem; as,—
vellem id quidem, I should wish that (i.e. were I bold enough).
281. The Imperative is used in commands, admonitions and entreaties (negative nē), as,—
ēgredere ex urbe, depart from the city;
mihi ignōsce, pardon me;
1. The Present is the tense of the Imperative most commonly used, but the Future is employed—
a) Where there is a distinct reference to future time, especially in the apodosis of conditional sentences; as,—
rem vōbīs prōpōnam; vōs eam penditōte, I will lay the matter before you; do you (then) consider it;
sī bene disputābit, tribuitō litterīs Graecis, if he shall speak well, attribute it to Greek literature.
b) In laws, treaties, wills, maxims, etc.; as,—
cōnsulēs summum jūs habentō, the consuls shall have supreme power;
hominem mortuom in urbe nē sepelītō, no one shall bury a dead body in the city;
amīcitia rēgī Antiochō cum populō Rōmānō hīs legibus et condiciōnibus estō, let there be friendship between Antiochus and the Roman people on the following terms and conditions;
quārtae estō partis Mārcus hērēs, let Marcus be heir to a fourth (of the property);
ignōscitō saepe alterī, numquam tibi, forgive your neighbor often, yourself never.
2. Except with the Future Imperative the negative is not used in classical prose. Prohibitions are regularly expressed in other ways. See § 276, b.
3. Questions in the Indicative introduced by quīn (why not?) are often equivalent to an Imperative or to the Hortatory Subjunctive; as,—
quīn abīs, go away! (lit. why don't you go away?);
quīn vōcem continētis, keep still! (lit. why don't you stop your voices?);
quīn equōs cōnscendimus, let us mount our horses (lit. why do we not mount our horses?)
MOODS IN DEPENDENT CLAUSES.
282. 1. Clauses of Purpose are introduced most commonly by ut (utī), quō (that, in order that), nē (in order that not, lest), and stand in the Subjunctive, as,—
edimus ut vīvāmus, we eat that we may live;
adjūtā mē quō hōc fīat facilius, help me, in order that this may be done more easily;
portās clausit, nē quam oppidānī injūriam acciperent, he closed the gates, lest the townspeople should receive any injury.
a. Quō, as a rule, is employed only when the purpose clause contains a comparative or a comparative idea. Occasional exceptions occur; as,—
haec faciunt quō Chremētem absterreant, they are doing this in order to frighten Chremes.
b. Ut nē is sometimes found instead of nē. Thus:—
ut nē quid neglegenter agāmus, in order that we may not do anything carelessly.
c. Ut nōn (not nē) is used where the negation belongs to some single word, instead of to the purpose clause as a whole. Thus:—
ut nōn ējectus ad aliēnōs, sed invītātus ad tuōs videāre, that you may seem not driven out among strangers, but invited to your own friends.
d. To say 'and that not' or 'or that not,' the Latin regularly uses nēve (neu); as,—
ut eārum rērum vīs minuerētur, neu pontī nocērent, that the violence of these things might be lessened, and that they might not harm the bridge;
profūgit, nē caperētur nēve interficerētur, he fled, that he might not be captured or killed.
e. But neque (for nēve) is sometimes used in a second Purpose Clause when ut stands in the first, and, after the Augustan era, even when the first clause is introduced by nē.
f. Purpose Clauses sometimes stand in apposition with a preceding noun or pronoun: as,—
hāc causā, ut pācem habērent, on this account, that they might have peace.
2. A Relative Pronoun (quī) or Adverb (ubi, unde, quō) is frequently used to introduce a Purpose Clause; as,—
Helvētiī lēgātōs mittunt, quī dīcerent, the Helvetii sent envoys to say (lit. who should say);
haec habuī, dē senectūte quae dīcerem, I had these things to say about old age;
nōn habēbant quō sē reciperent, they had no place to which to flee (lit. whither they might flee).
a. Quī in such clauses is equivalent to ut is, ut ego, etc.; ubi to ut ibi; unde to ut inde; quō to ut eō.
3. Relative Clauses of purpose follow dignus, indignus, and idōneus; as,—
idōneus fuit nēmō quem imitārēre, there was no one suitable for you to imitate (cf. nēmō fuit quem imitārēre, there was no one for you to imitate);
dignus est quī aliquandō imperet, he is worthy to rule sometime.
4. Purpose Clauses often depend upon something to be supplied from the context instead of upon the principal verb of their own sentences; as,—
ut haec omnia omittam, abiimus, to pass over all this, (I will say that) we departed.
283. 1. A relative clause used to express a quality or characteristic of a general or indefinite antecedent is called a Clause of Characteristic, and usually stands in the Subjunctive; as,—
multa sunt, quae mentem acuant, there are many things which sharpen the wits.
Clauses of Characteristic are opposed to those relative clauses which are used merely to state some fact about a definite antecedent, and which therefore take the Indicative; as,—
Catō, senex jūcundus, quī Sapiēns appellātus est, Cato, a delightful old man, who was called 'The Wise.'
The Clause of Characteristic implies 'a person of the sort that does something'; the Indicative relative clause implies 'a particular person who does something.'
2. Clauses of Characteristic are used especially after such expressions as, est quī; sunt quī; nēmō est quī; nūllus est quī; ūnus est quī; sōlus est quī; quis est quī; is quī; etc. Thus:—
sunt quī dīcant, there are (some) who say;
nēmō est quī nesciat, there is nobody who is ignorant;
sapientia est ūna quae maestitiam pellat, philosophy is the only thing that drives away sorrow;
quae cīvitās est quae nōn ēvertī possit, what state is there that cannot be overthrown?
nōn is sum quī improbōs laudem, I am not the sort of man that praises the wicked.
a. Sometimes (very rarely in Cicero and Caesar) the clause of characteristic is used after comparatives; as,—
nōn longius hostēs aberant quam quō tēlum adigī posset, the enemy were not too far off for a dart to reach them (lit. further off than [a point] to which a dart could be cast).
3. The Clause of Characteristic often conveys an accessory notion of cause (since) or opposition (although). Thus:—
a) Cause. The relative is then frequently accompanied by ut, quīppe, utpote; as,—
ō fortūnāte adulēscēns, quī tuae virtūtis Homērum praecōnem invēnerīs, O fortunate man, since you have found a Homer as the herald of your valor;
ut quī optimō jūre eam prōvinciam obtinuerit, since he held that province by excellent right.
egomet quī sērō Graecās litterās attigissem, tamen complūrēs diēs Athēnīs commorātus sum, I, although I had taken up Greek literature late in life, nevertheless tarried several days at Athens.
4. Clauses of Characteristic may also be introduced by quīn = quī (quae, quod) nōn; as,—
nēmō est quīn saepe audierit, there is no one who has not often heard;
nēmō fuit mīlitum quīn vulnerārētur, there was no one of the soldiers who was not wounded.
5. Related to Clauses of Characteristic are also phrases of the type:
quod sciam, so far as I know; quem (quam, quod), audierim, so far as I have heard.
284. 1. Clauses of Result are usually introduced by ut (that, so that), negative ut nōn (so that not), and take the Subjunctive. The main clause often contains tantus, tālis, tot, is (= tālis), tam, ita, sīc, adeō, or some similar word. Thus:—
quis tam dēmēns est ut suā voluntāte maereat, who is so senseless as to mourn of his own volition?
Siciliam ita vāstāvit ut restituī in antīquum statum nōn possit, he so ravaged Sicily that it cannot be restored to its former condition;
mōns altissimus impendēbat, ut facile perpaucī prohibēre possent, a very high mountain overhung, so that a very few could easily stop them;
nōn is es ut tē pudor umquam ā turpitūdine āvocārit, you are not so constituted that shame ever called you back from baseness.
2. A Result Clause is often introduced by a Relative Pronoun or Adverb, quī (= ut is), quō (= ut eō), etc.; as,—
nēmō est tam senex quī sē annum nōn putet posse vīvere, nobody is so old as not to think he can live a year;
habētis eum cōnsulem quī pārēre vestrīs dēcrētīs nōn dubitet, you have a consul such as does not hesitate to obey your decrees.
a. These Relative Clauses of Result are closely related to the Clause of Characteristic, and sometimes it is difficult to distinguish the two constructions. It is best to class the relative clause as one of Characteristic, unless the result idea is clear and unmistakable.
3. Result clauses may also be introduced by quīn = ut nōn; as,—
nihil tam difficile est quīn quaerendō invēstīgārī possit, nothing is so difficult that it cannot be discovered by searching;
nēmō est tam fortis quīn reī novitāte perturbētur, no one is so steadfast as not to be thrown into confusion by a strange occurrence.
4. Note the use of quam ut (sometimes quam alone) to denote Result after comparatives; as,—
urbs erat mūnītior quam ut prīmō impetū capī posset, the city was too strongly fortified to be taken at the first attack (lit. more strongly fortified than [so] that it could be taken, etc.).
285. Causal clauses are introduced chiefly by the following particles:—
1. Quod, quia, quoniam.
286. The use of moods is as follows:—
1. Quod, quia, quoniam take the Indicative when the reason is that of the writer or speaker; they take the Subjunctive when the reason is viewed as that of another. Thus:—
Parthōs timeō quod diffīdō cōpiīs nostrīs, I fear the Parthians, because I distrust our troops.
Themistoclēs, quia nōn tūtus erat, Corcyram dēmigrāvit, Themistocles, since he was not safe, moved to Corcyra.
neque mē vīxisse paenitet, quoniam bene vīxī, I do not regret having lived, since I have lived well.
Sōcratēs accūsātus est quod corrumperet juventūtem, Socrates was arraigned on the ground that he was corrupting the young. (Here the reason is not that of the writer but of the accuser. Hence the Subjunctive.)
Haeduī Caesarī grātiās ēgērunt quod sē perīculō līberāvisset, the Haedui thanked Caesar because he had delivered them from danger. (The reason of the Haedui.)
quoniam Miltiadēs dīcere nōn posset, verba prō eō fēcit Tīsagorās, since Miltiades could not speak, Tisagoras spoke for him. (The reason of Tisagoras.)
noctū ambulābat Themistoclēs, quod somnum capere nōn posset, Themistocles used to walk at night because (as he said) he couldn't sleep.
a. Verbs of thinking and saying often stand in the Subjunctive in causal clauses as though the act of thinking or saying, and not the contents of the thought or language, constituted the reason. Thus:—
Bellovacī suum numerum nōn complēvērunt quod sē suō nōmine cum Rōmānīs bellum gestūrōs dīcerent, the Bellovaci did not furnish their complement, because they said they were going to wage war with the Romans on their own account.
b. Nōn quod, nōn quō (by attraction for nōn eō quod), nōn quia, not that, not because; and nōn quod nōn, nōn quō nōn, nōn quīn, not that ... not; not because ... not; not but that, are usually employed merely to introduce a hypothetical reason, and hence take the Subjunctive; as,—
id fēcī, nōn quod vōs hanc dēfēnsiōnem dēsīderāre arbitrārer, sed ut omnēs intellegerent, this I did, not because I thought you needed this defense, but that all might perceive;
Crassō commendātiōnem nōn sum pollicitus, nōn quīn eam valitūram apud tē arbitrārer, sed egēre mihi commendātiōne nōn vidēbātur, I did not promise a recommendation to Crassus, not that I did not think it would have weight with you, but because he did not seem to me to need recommendation.
c. But clauses introduced by nōn quod, nōn quīa take the Indicative if they state a fact, even though that fact is denied to be the reason for something; as,—
hōc ita sentiō, nōn quia sum ipse augur, sed quia sīc exīstimāre nōs est necesse, this I think, not because I am myself an augur (which I really am), but because it is necessary for us to think so.
2. Cum causal regularly takes the Subjunctive; as,—
quae cum īta sint, since this is so;
cum sīs mortālis, quae mortālia sunt, cūrā, since you are mortal, care for what is mortal.
a. Note the phrase cum praesertim (praesertim cum), especially since; as,—
Haeduōs accūsat, praesertim cum eōrum precibus adductus bellum suscēperit, he blamed the Haedui, especially since he had undertaken the war at their entreaties.
3. Quandō (less frequent than the other causal particles) governs the Indicative; as,—
id omittō, quandō vōbīs ita placet, I pass over that, since you so wish.
287. 1. Postquam (posteāquam), after; ut, ubi, when; cum prīmum, simul, simul ac (simul atque), as soon as, when used to refer to a single past act regularly take the Perfect Indicative; as,—
Epamīnōndās postquam audīvit vīcisse Boeōtiōs, 'Satis' inquit 'vīxī,' Epaminondas, after he heard that the Boeotians had conquered, said, 'I have lived enough;'
id ut audīvit, Corcyram dēmigrāvit, when he heard this, he moved to Corcyra;
Caesar cum prīmum potuit, ad exercitum contendit, Caesar, as soon as he could, hurried to the army;
ubi dē Caesaris adventū certiōrēs factī sunt, lēgātōs ad eum mittunt, when they were informed of Caesar's arrival, they sent envoys to him.
a. The Historical Present may take the place of the Perfect in this construction.
2. To denote the repeated occurrence of an act, ut, ubi, simul atque, as often as, when following an historical tense, take the Pluperfect Indicative (compare §§ 288, 3; 302, 3); as,—
ut quisque Verris animum offenderat, in lautumiās statim coniciēbātur, whenever anybody had offended Verres's feelings, he was forthwith put in the stone-quarry;
hostēs, ubi aliquōs ēgredientēs cōnspexerant, adoriēbantur, whenever the enemy had seen any men disembarking, they attacked them.
a. In Livy and succeeding historians the Imperfect and Pluperfect Subjunctive are used to denote this repeated occurrence of an act ('Indefinite Frequency'); as,—
id ubi dīxisset hastam mittēbat, whenever he had said that, he hurled a spear.
3. Occasionally the above conjunctions are followed by the Pluperfect Indicative of a single occurrence. This is regularly the case with postquam in expressions denoting a definite interval of time (days, months, years, etc.), such as post tertium annum quam, trienniō postquam. Thus:—
quīnque post diēbus quam Lūcā discesserat, ad Sardiniam vēnit five days after he had departed from Luca he came to Sardinia;
postquam occupātae Syrācūsae erant, profectus est Carthāginem, after Syracuse had been seized, he set out for Carthage.
4. The Imperfect Indicative also sometimes occurs, to denote a continued state; as,—
postquam Rōmam adventābant, senātus cōnsultus est, after they were on the march toward Rome, the Senate was consulted;
postquam strūctī utrimque stābant, after they had been drawn up on both sides and were in position.
5. Rarely postquam, posteāquam, following the analogy of cum, take the Subjunctive, but only in the historical tenses; as,—
posteāquam sūmptuōsa fieri fūnera coepissent, lēge sublāta sunt, after funerals had begun to be elaborate, they were done away with by law.
A. Cum REFERRING TO THE PAST.
288. 1. Cum, when referring to the past, takes,—
A. The Indicative (Imperfect, Historical Perfect, or Pluperfect) to denote the point of time at which something occurs.
B. The Subjunctive (Imperfect or Pluperfect) to denote the situation or circumstances under which something occurs.
an tum erās cōnsul, cum in Palātiō mea domus ārdēbat, or were you consul at the time when my house burned up on the Palatine?
crēdō tum cum Sicilia flōrēbat opibus et cōpiīs magna artificia fuisse in eā īnsulā, I believe that at the time when Sicily was powerful in riches and resources there were great crafts in that island;
eō tempore pāruit cum pārēre necesse erat, he obeyed at the time when it was necessary to obey;
illō diē, cum est lāta lēx dē mē, on that day when the law concerning me was passed.
Lysander cum vellet Lycūrgī lēgēs commūtāre, prohibitus est, when Lysander desired to change the laws of Lycurgus, he was prevented;
Pythagorās cum in geōmetriā quiddam novī invēnisset, Mūsīs bovem immolāsse dīcitur, when Pythagoras had discovered something new in geometry, he is said to have sacrificed an ox to the Muses.
a. Note that the Indicative is much less frequent in such clauses than the Subjunctive, and is regularly confined to those cases where the main clause has tum, eō diē, eō annō, eō tempore or some similar correlative of the cum. Sometimes it depends entirely upon the point of view of the writer whether he shall employ the Indicative or Subjunctive.
2. Cum Inversum. When the logical order of the clauses is inverted, we find cum with the Perfect Indicative or Historical Present, in the sense of when, when suddenly. The main clause in such cases often has jam, vix, aegrē, nōndum; as,—
jam Gallī ex oppidō fugere apparābant, cum mātrēs familiae repente prōcurrērunt, the Gauls were already preparing to flee, when suddenly the matrons rushed forth (logically, the matrons rushed forth as the Gauls were preparing to flee);
Trēvirī Labiēnum adorīrī parābant, cum duās legiōnēs vēnisse cognōscunt, the Treviri were preparing to attack, when (suddenly) they learned that two legions had arrived.
3. To denote a recurring action in the past, cum is followed by the Indicative, particularly of the Pluperfect (compare §§ 287, 2; 302, 3); as,—
cum ād aliquod oppidum vēnerat, eādem lectīcā ad cubiculum dēferēbātur, whenever he had arrived at some town, he was (always) carried in the same litter to his room;
cum equitātus noster sē in agrōs ējēcerat, essedāriōs ex silvīs ēmittēbat, whenever our cavalry had advanced into the fields, he would send his charioteers out from the woods.
a. Sometimes the Imperfect or Pluperfect Subjunctive is thus used; as,—
saepe cum aliquem vidēret minus bene vestītum, suum amiculum dedit, often, wherever he saw some one more poorly clothed, he gave him his own mantle;
cum prōcucurrissent, Numidae effugiēbant, as often as they had advanced, the Numidians ran away.
This construction is frequent in Livy and subsequent historians.
B. Cum REFERRING TO THE PRESENT OR FUTURE.
289. When cum refers to the Present or Future it regularly takes the Indicative; as,—
tum tua rēs agitur, pariēs cum proximus ārdet, your own interests are at stake when your neighbor's house is burning;
cum vidēbis, tum sciēs, when you see, then you will know.
a. The Indicative of the Present or Future may denote also a recurring action; as,—
stabilitās amīcitiae cōnfirmārī potest, cum hominēs cupīdinibus imperābunt, firm friendship can be established whenever men shall control their desires.
C. OTHER USES OF Cum.
290. 1. Cum Explicative. Cum, with the Indicative, is sometimes used to indicate the identity of one act with another; as,—
cum tacent clāmant, their silence is a shout (lit. when they are silent, they shout).
2. Cum ... tum. When cum ... tum mean both ... and, the cum-clause is in the Indicative; but when cum has the force of while, though, it may take the Subjunctive; as,—
cum tē semper dīlēxerim, tum tuīs factīs incēnsus sum, while I have always loved you, at the same time I am stirred by your conduct.
A. WITH THE INDICATIVE.
291. Antequam and priusquam (often written ante ... quam, prius ... quam) take the Indicative to denote an actual fact.
1. Sometimes the Present or Future Perfect; as,—
prius respondēs quam rogō, you answer before I ask;
nihil contrā disputābō priusquam dīxerit, I will say nothing in opposition, before he speaks.
2. Sometimes the Perfect, especially after negative clauses; as,—
nōn prius jugulandī fīnis fuit, quam Sulla omnēs suōs dīvitiīs explēvit, there was no end of murder until Sulla satisfied all his henchmen with wealth.
B. WITH THE SUBJUNCTIVE.
292. Antequam and priusquam take the Subjunctive to denote an act as anticipated.
1. Thus the Subjunctive may denote—
a) An act in preparation for which the main act takes place; as,—
priusquam dīmicārent, foedus īctum est, i.e. in anticipation of the fight, a treaty was struck.
By an extension of this usage, the Subjunctive is sometimes used of general truths, where the anticipatory notion has faded out; as,—
tempestās minātur antequam surgat, the tempest threatens before it rises.
b) An act anticipated and forestalled; as,—
priusquam tēlum adicī posset, omnis aciēs terga vertit, before a spear could be hurled, the whole army fled.
c) An act anticipated and deprecated; as,—
animum omittunt priusquam locō dēmigrent, they die rather than quit their post.
2. After historical tenses the Imperfect Subjunctive is used, especially by some writers, where the notion of anticipation has practically vanished; as,—
sōl antequam sē abderet fugientem vīdit Antōnium, the sun before it set saw Antony fleeing.
293. 1. Dum, while, regularly takes the Indicative of the Historical Present; as,—
Alexander, dum inter prīmōrēs pugnat, sagittā ictus est, Alexander, while he was fighting in the van, was struck by an arrow;
dum haec geruntur, in fīnēs Venellōrum pervēnit, while these things were being done, he arrived in the territory of the Venelli.
II. Dum, dōnec, and quoad, as long as, take the Indicative; as,—
dum anima est, spēs est, as long as there is life, there is hope;
Lacedaemoniōrum gēns fortis fuit, dum Lycūrgī lēgēs vigēbant, the race of the Lacedaemonians was powerful, as long as the laws of Lycurgus were in force;
Catō, quoad vīxit, virtūtum laude crēvit, Cato, at long as he lived, increased in the fame of his virtues.
III. Dum, dōnec, and quoad, until, take:—
1. The Indicative, to denote an actual event; as,—
dōnec rediit, fuit silentium, there was silence till he came;
ferrum in corpore retinuit, quoad renūntiātum est Boeōtiōs vīcisse, he kept the iron in his body until word was brought that the Boeotians had conquered.
a. In Livy and subsequent historians dum and dōnec in this sense often take the Subjunctive instead of the Indicative; as,—
trepidātiōnis aliquantum ēdēbant dōnec timor quiētem fēcisset, they showed some trepidation, until fear produced quiet.
2. The Subjunctive, to denote anticipation or expectancy; as,—
exspectāvit Caesar dum nāvēs convenīrent, Caesar waited for the ships to assemble;
dum litterae veniant, morābor, I shall wait for the letter to come.
294. A Substantive Clause is one which as a whole serves as the Subject or Object of a verb, or stands in some other case relation.
295. Substantive Clauses Developed from the Volitive are used with the following classes of verbs:—
1. With verbs signifying to admonish, request, command, urge, persuade, induce, etc. (conjunctions ut, nē, or ut nē); as,—
postulō ut fīat, I demand that it be done (dependent form of the Jussive fīat, let it be done!);
ōrat, nē abeās, he begs that you will not go away;
mīlitēs cohortātus est ut hostium impetum sustinērent, he exhorted his soldiers to withstand the attack of the enemy;
Helvētiīs persuāsit ut exīrent, he persuaded the Helvetii to march forth.
a. Jubeō, command, order, regularly takes the Infinitive.
2. With verbs signifying to grant, concede, permit, allow, etc. (conjunction ut); as,—
huic concēdō ut ea praetereat, I allow him to pass that by (dependent form of the Jussive ea praetereat, let him pass that by!);
cōnsulī permissum est ut duās legiōnēs scrīberet, the consul was permitted to enroll two legions.
3. With verbs of hindering, preventing, etc. (conjunctions nē, quōminus, quīn); as,—
nē lūstrum perficeret, mors prohibuit, death prevented him from finishing the lustrum (dependent form after past tense of nē lūstrum perficiat, let him not finish, etc.);
prohibuit quōminus in ūnum coīrent, he prevented them from coming together;
nec quīn ērumperet, prohibērī poterat, nor could he be prevented from rushing forth.
a. Quīn is used only when the verb of hindering is accompanied by a negative, or stands in a question implying a negative; it is not necessarily used even then.
4. With verbs of deciding, resolving, etc. (conjunctions ut, nē, or ut nē); as,—
cōnstitueram ut prīdiē Īdūs Aquīnī manērem, I had decided to remain at Aquinum on the 12th;
dēcrēvit senātus ut Opīmius vidēret, the Senate decreed that Opimius should see to it;
convēnit ut ūnīs castrīs miscērentur, it was agreed that they should be united in one camp.
5. With verbs of striving, etc. (conjunctions ut, nē, or ut nē); as,—
fac ut eum exōrēs, see to it that you prevail upon him!
cūrā ut vir sīs, see to it that you are a man!
labōrābat ut reliquās cīvitātēs adjungeret, he was striving to join the remaining states to him.
a. Cōnor, try, always takes the Infinitive.
NOTE.—Verbs of all the above classes also admit the Infinitive, especially in poetry.
6. With a few other expressions, such as necesse est, reliquus est, sequitur, licet, oportet; as,—
sequitur ut doceam, it remains for me to show;
licet redeās, you may return;
oportet loquāmur, we must speak.
On the absence of ut with licet and oportet, see paragraph 8.
7. Here also belong phrases of the type: nūlla causa est cūr, quīn; nōn est cūr, etc.; nihil est cūr, etc.; as,—
nūlla causa est cūr timeam, there is no reason why I should fear (originally Deliberative: why should I fear? There's no reason);
nihil est quīn dīcam, there is no reason why I should not say.
8. Many of the above classes of verbs at times take the simple Subjunctive without ut. In such cases we must not recognize any omission of ut, but simply an earlier form of expression which existed before the ut-clause arose. This is regularly the case with necesse est, licet, and oportet; see 6. Other examples are:—
eōs moneō dēsinant, I warn them to stop;
huic imperat adeat cīvitātēs, he orders him to visit the states.
296. Substantive Clauses Developed from the Optative occur:—
1. With verbs of wishing, desiring, especially cupiō, optō, volō, mālō (conjunctions ut, nē, ut nē); as,—
optō ut in hōc jūdiciō nēmō improbus reperiātur, I hope that in this court no bad man may be found (here ut reperiātur represents a simple optative of direct statement, viz. reperiātur, may no bad man be found!);
cupiō nē veniat, I desire that he may not come.
a. The simple Subjunctive (without ut) sometimes occurs with verbs of this class. (See § 295, 8.) Examples are: velim scrībās, I wish you would write; vellem scrīpsisset, I wish he had written.
2. With expressions of fearing (timeō, metuō, vereor, etc.). Here nē means that, lest, and ut means that not; as,—
timeō nē veniat, I fear that he will come (originally: may he not come! I'm afraid [he will]);
timeō ut veniat, I fear that he will not come (originally: may he come! I'm afraid [he won't]).
a. Nē nōn sometimes occurs instead of ut, especially where the verb of fearing has a negative, or where the writer desires to emphasize some particular word in the dependent clause; as,—
nōn vereor ne hōc nōn fīat, I am not afraid that this will not happen;
vereor nē exercitum fīrmum habēre nōn possit, I fear that he is unable (nōn possit) to have a strong army.
297. Substantive Clauses of Result (introduced by ut, ut nōn) are a development of pure Result clauses, and occur with the following classes of words:—
1. As object clauses after verbs of doing, accomplishing (especially faciō, efficiō, cōnficiō). Thus:—
gravitās morbī facit ut medicīnā egeāmus, the severity of disease makes us need medicine.
2. As the subject of several impersonal verbs, particularly fit, efficitur, accidit, ēvenit, contingit, accēdit, fierī potest, fore, sequitur, relinquitur. Thus:—
ex quō efficitur, ut voluptās nōn sit summum bonum, from which it follows that pleasure is not the greatest good;
ita fit, ut nēmō esse possit beātus, thus it happens that no one can be happy;
accēdēbat ut nāvēs deessent, another thing was the lack of ships (lit. it was added that ships were lacking).
3. As predicate or appositive after expressions like jūs est, mōs est, cōnsuētūdō est; also after neuter pronouns, hōc, illud, etc. Thus:—
est mōs hominum ut nōlint eundem plūribus rēbus excellere, it is the way of men not to wish the same person to excel in many things.
298. Substantive Clauses introduced by quīn (used sometimes as subject, sometimes as object) occur after negative and interrogative expressions of doubt, omission, and the like, particularly after nōn dubitō, I do not doubt; quis dubitat, who doubts?; nōn (haud) dubium est, there is no doubt. The mood is the Subjunctive. Examples:—
quis dubitat quīn in virtūte dīvitiae sint, who doubts that in virtue there are riches?
nōn dubium erat quīn ventūrus esset, there was no doubt that he was about to come.
a. In Nepos, Livy, and post-Augustan writers an Infinitive sometimes takes the place of the quīn-clause after nōn dubitō; as,—
nōn dubitāmus inventōs esse, we do not doubt that men were found
b. Nōn dubitō, I do not hesitate, is regularly followed by the Infinitive, though sometimes by a quīn-clause.
299. 1. Quod, the fact that, that, introduces Substantive Clauses in the Indicative. This construction occurs especially—
a) In apposition with a preceding demonstrative, as hōc, id, illud, illa, ex eō, inde, etc. Thus:—
illud est admīrātiōne dignum, quod captīvōs retinendōs cēnsuit, this is especially worthy of admiration, that he thought the prisoners ought to be kept;
hōc ūnō praestāmus vel maximē ferīs, quod colloquimur inter nōs, in this one respect we are especially superior to the beasts, that we talk with each other.
b) After bene fit, bene accidit, male fit, bene facere, mīror, etc.; as,—
bene mihi ēvenit, quod mittor ad mortem, it is well for me that I am sent to death;
bene fēcistī quod mānsistī, you did well in remaining.
2. Quod at the beginning of the sentence sometimes has the force of as regards the fact that. Thus:—
quod multitūdinem Germānōrum in Galliam trādūcō, id meī mūniendī causā faciō, as regards the fact that I am transporting a multitude of Germans into Gaul, I am doing it for the sake of strengthening myself;
quod mē Agamemnona aemulārī putās, falleris, as regards your thinking that I emulate Agamemnon, you are mistaken.
300. 1. Indirect Questions are Substantive Clauses used after verbs of asking, inquiring, telling, and the like. They take their verb in the Subjunctive. Like Direct Questions (see § 162) they may be introduced—
a) By Interrogative Pronouns or Adverbs; as,—
dīc mihi ubi fuerīs, quid fēcerīs, tell me where you were, what you did;
oculīs jūdicārī nōn potest in utram partem fluat Arar, it cannot be determined by the eye in which direction the Arar flows;
bis bīna quot essent, nesciēbat, he did not know how many two times two were.
NOTE.—Care should be taken to distinguish Indirect Questions from Relative Clauses. The difference between the two appears clearly in the following:—
effugere nēmō id potest quod futūrum est, no one can escape what is destined to come to pass; but saepe autem ne ūtile quidem est scīre quid futūrum sit, but often it is not even useful to know what is coming to pass.
b) By num or -ne, without distinction of meaning; as,—
Epamīnōndās quaesīvit num salvus esset clipeus, or salvusne esset clipeus, Epaminondas asked whether his shield was safe;
disputātur num interīre virtūs in homine possit, the question is raised whether virtue can die in a man;
ex Sōcrate quaesītum est nōnne Archelāum beātum putāret, the question was asked of Socrates whether he did not think Archelaus happy.
NOTE.—Nōnne in Indirect Questions occurs only after quaerō, as in the last example above.
2. Often the Indirect Question represents a Deliberative Subjunctive of the direct discourse; as,—
nesciō quid faciam, I do not know what to do. (Direct: quid faciam, what shall I do!)
3. After verbs of expectation and endeavor (exspectō, cōnor, experior, temptō) we sometimes find an Indirect Question introduced by sī; as,—
cōnantur sī perrumpere possint, they try whether they can break through.
a. Sometimes the governing verb is omitted; as,—
pergit ad proximam spēluncam sī forte eō vēstīgia ferrent, he proceeded to the nearest cave (to see) if the tracks led thither.
4. Indirect Double Questions are introduced in the main by the same particles as direct double questions (§ 162, 4); viz.;—
utrum ... an;
-ne ... an;
—— ... an;
—— ... ne.
quaerō utrum vērum an falsum sit,
quaerō vērumne an falsum sit,
quaerō vērum an falsum sit,
quaerō vērum falsumne sit,
} I ask whether it
} is true or false?
a. 'Or not' in the second member of the double question is ordinarily expressed by necne, less frequently by an nōn; as,—
dī utrum sint necne, quaeritur, it is asked whether there are gods or not.
5. Haud sciō an, nesciō an, by omission of the first member of the double question, occur with the Subjunctive in the sense: I am inclined to think, probably, perhaps; as,—
haud sciō an ita sit, I am inclined to think this is so.
6. In early Latin and in poetry the Indicative is sometimes used in indirect Questions.
301. Conditional Sentences are compound sentences (§ 164) consisting of two parts, the Protasis (or condition), usually introduced by sī, nisi, or sīn, and the Apodosis (or conclusion). There are the following types of Conditional Sentences:—
302. 1. Here we regularly have the Indicative in both Protasis and Apodosis. Any tense may be used; as,—
sī hōc crēdis, errās, if you believe this, you are mistaken;
nātūram sī sequēmur, numquam aberrābimus, if we follow Nature, we shall never go astray;
sī hōc dīxistī, errāstī, if you said this, you were in error.
2. Sometimes the Protasis takes the Indefinite Second Person Singular (§ 356, 3) of the Present or Perfect Subjunctive, with the force of the Indicative; as,—
memoria minuitur, nisi eam exerceās, memory is impaired unless you exercise it.
3. Here belong also those conditional sentences in which the Protasis denotes a repeated action (compare §§ 287, 2; 288, 3); as,—
sī quis equitum dēciderat, peditēs circumsistēbant, if any one of the horsemen fell, the foot-soldiers gathered about him.
a. Instead of the Indicative, Livy and subsequent writers employ the Subjunctive of the Historical tenses in the Protasis to denote repeated action; as,—
sī dīcendō quis diem eximeret, if (ever) anybody consumed a day in pleading; sī quandō adsidēret, if ever he sat by.
4. Where the sense demands it, the Apodosis in conditional sentences of the First Type may be an Imperative or one of the Independent Subjunctives (Hortatory, Deliberative, etc.); as,—
sī hōc crēditis, tacēte, if you believe this, be silent;
sī hōc crēdimus, taceāmus, if we believe this, let us keep silent.
303. Here we regularly have the Subjunctive (of the Present or Perfect tense) in both Protasis and Apodosis; as,—
sī hōc dīcās, errēs, or sī hōc dīxerīs, errāverīs, if you should say this, you would be mistaken;
sī velim Hannibalis proelia omnia dēscrībere, diēs mē dēficiat, if I should wish to describe all the battles of Hannibal, time would fail me;
mentiar, sī negem, I should lie, if I should deny it;
haec sī tēcum patria loquātur, nōnne impetrāre dēbeat, if your country should plead thus with you, would she not deserve to obtain her request?
a. The Subjunctive in the Apodosis of conditional sentences of this type is of the Potential variety.
b. Sometimes we find the Indicative in the Apodosis of sentences of the Second Type, where the writer wishes to assert the accomplishment of a result more positively; as,—
aliter sī faciat, nūllam habet auctōritātem, if he should do otherwise, he has no authority.
304. 1. Here we regularly have the Subjunctive in both Protasis and Apodosis, the Imperfect referring to present time, and the Pluperfect referring to past; as,—
sī amīcī meī adessent, opis nōn indigērem, if my friends were here, I should not lack assistance;
sī hōc dīxissēs, errāssēs, if you had said this, you would have erred;
sapientia nōn expeterētur, sī nihil efficeret, philosophy would not be desired, if it accomplished nothing;
cōnsilium, ratiō, sententia nisi essent in senibus, nōn summum cōnsilium majōrēs nostrī appellāssent senātum, unless deliberation, reason, and wisdom existed in old men, our ancestors would not have called their highest deliberative body a senate.
2. Sometimes the Imperfect Subjunctive is found referring to the past, especially to denote a continued act, or a state of things still existing; as,—
Laelius, Fūrius, Catō sī nihil litterīs adjuvārentur, numquam sē ad eārum studium contulissent, Laelius, Furius, and Cato would never have devoted themselves to the study of letters, unless they had been (constantly) helped by them;
num igitur sī ad centēsimum annum vīxisset, senectūtis eum suae paenitēret, if he had lived to his hundredth year, would he have regretted (and now be regretting) his old age?
3. The Apodosis in conditional sentences of this type sometimes stands in the Indicative (Imperfect, Perfect, or Pluperfect), viz.—
a) Frequently in expressions of ability, obligation, or necessity; as,—
nisi fēlīcitās in sōcordiam vertisset, exuere jugum potuērunt, unless their prosperity had turned to folly, they could have thrown off the yoke;
NOTE.—In sentences of this type, however, it is not the possibility that is represented as-contrary-to-fact, but something to be supplied in thought from the context. Thus in the foregoing sentence the logical apodosis is et exuissent understood (and they would have shaken it off). When the possibility itself is conditioned, the Subjunctive is used.
eum patris locō colere dēbēbās, sī ūlla in tē pietās esset, you ought to revere him as a father, if you had any sense of devotion.
b) With both the Periphrastic Conjugations; as,—
sī Sēstius occīsus esset, fuistisne ad arma itūrī, if Sestius had been slain, would you have proceeded to arms?
sī ūnum diem morātī essētis, moriendum omnibus fuit, if you had delayed one day, you would all have had to die.
305. 1. The Protasis is not always expressed by a clause with sī, but may be implied in a word, a phrase, or merely by the context; as,—
aliōquī haec nōn scrīberentur, otherwise (i.e. if matters were otherwise) these things would not be written;
nōn potestis, voluptāte omnia dīrigentēs, retinēre virtūtem, you cannot retain virtue, if you direct everything with reference to pleasure.
2. Sometimes an Imperative, or a Jussive Subjunctive, serves as Protasis. Thus:—
crās petitō, dabitur, if you ask to-morrow, it shall be given you (lit. ask to-morrow, etc.);
haec reputent, vidēbunt, if they consider this, they will see (lit. let them consider, etc.);
rogēs Zēnōnem, respondeat, if you should ask Zeno, he would answer.
306. 1. Nisi, unless, negatives the entire protasis; sī nōn negatives a single word; as,—
ferreus essem, nisi tē amārem, I should be hard-hearted unless I loved you; but—
ferreus essem, sī tē nōn amārem, I should be hard-hearted if I did NOT love you.
In the first example, it is the notion of loving you that is negatived, in the second, the notion of loving.
2. Sī nōn (sī minus) is regularly employed:—
a) When an apodosis with at, tamen, certē follows; as,—
dolōrem sī nōn potuerō frangere, tamen occultābō, if I cannot crush my sorrow, yet I will hide it.
b) When an affirmative protasis is repeated in negative form; as,—
sī fēceris, magnam habēbō grātiam; sī nōn fēceris, ignōscam, if you do it, I shall be deeply grateful; if you do not do it, I shall pardon you.
a. But if the verb is omitted in the repetition, only si minus or sin minus is admissible; as,—
hōc sī assecūtus sum, gaudeō; sī minus, mē cōnsōlor, if I have attained this, I am glad; if not, I console myself.
3. Sīn. Where one protasis is followed by another opposed in meaning, but affirmative in form, the second is introduced by sīn; as,—
hunc mihi timōrem ēripe; sī vērus est, nē opprimar, sīn falsus, ut timēre dēsinam, relieve me of this fear; if it is well founded, that I may not be destroyed; but if it is groundless, that I may cease to fear.
4. Nisi has a fondness for combining with negatives (nōn, nēmō, nihil); as,—
nihil cōgitāvit nisi caedem, he had no thought but murder.
a. Nōn and nisi are always separated in the best Latinity.
5. Nisi forte, nisi vērō, nisi sī, unless perchance, unless indeed (often with ironical force), take the Indicative; as,—
nisi vērō, quia perfecta rēs nōn est, nōn vidētur pūnienda, unless indeed, because an act is not consummated, it does not seem to merit punishment.
307. 1. Conditional Clauses of Comparison are introduced by the particles, ac sī, ut sī, quasi, quam sī, tamquam sī, velut sī, or simply by velut or tamquam. They stand in the Subjunctive mood and regularly involve an ellipsis (see § 374, 1), as indicated in the following examples:—
tantus patrēs metus cēpit, velat sī jam ad portās hostis esset, as great fear seized the senators as (would have seized them) if the enemy were already at the gates;
sed quid ego hīs testibus ūtor quasi rēs dubia aut obscūra sit, but why do I use these witnesses, as (I should do) if the matter were doubtful or obscure;
serviam tibi tam quasi ēmerīs mē argentō, I will serve you as though you had bought me for money.
2. Note that in sentences of this kind the Latin observes the regular principles for the Sequence of Tenses. Thus after principal tenses the Latin uses the Present and Perfect (as in the second and third examples), where the English uses the Past and Past Perfect.
308. The term 'Concessive' is best restricted to those clauses developed from the Jussive Subjunctive which have the force of granted that, etc.; (see § 278) as,—
sit fūr, sit sacrilegus, at est bonus imperātor, granted that he is a thief and a robber, yet he is a good commander;
haec sint falsa, granted that this is false;
nē sit summum malum dolor, malum certē est, granted that pain is not the greatest evil, yet it is certainly an evil.
309. Clauses introduced by quamvīs, quamquam, etsī, tametsī, cum, although, while often classed as 'Concessive,' are yet essentially different from genuine Concessive clauses. As a rule, they do not grant or concede anything, but rather state that something is true in spite of something else. They accordingly emphasize the adversative idea, and are properly Subordinate Adversative Clauses. The different particles used to introduce these clauses have different meanings and take different constructions, as follows:—
1. Quamvīs, however much, although, does not introduce a statement of fact, but represents an act merely as conceived. It is followed by the Subjunctive, usually of the present tense; as,—
hominēs quamvīs in turbidīs rēbus sint, tamen interdum animīs relaxantur, in however stirring events men may engage, yet at times they relax their energies;
nōn est potestās opitulandī reī pūblicae quamvīs ea premātur perīculīs, there is no opportunity to succor the state, though it be beset by dangers.
2. Quamquam, etsī, tametsī, although, introduce a statement of fact, and are followed by the Indicative (of any tense); as,—
quamquam omnis virtūs nōs allicit, tamen jūstitia id maximē efficit, although all virtue attracts us, yet justice does so especially;
Caesar, etsī nōndum cōnsilium hostium cognōverat, tamen id quod accidit suspicābātur, Caesar, though he did not yet know the plans of the enemy, yet was suspecting what actually occurred.
a. Etsī, although, must be distinguished from etsī, even if. The latter is a conditional particle and takes any of the constructions admissible for sī. (See §§ 302-304.)
3. Cum, although, is followed by the Subjunctive; as,—
Atticus honōrēs nōn petiit, cum eī patērent, Atticus did not seek honors, though they were open to him.
4. Licet sometimes loses its verbal force (see § 295, 6) and sinks to the level of a conjunction with the force of although. It takes the Subjunctive, Present or Perfect; as,—
licet omnēs terrōrēs impendeant, succurram, though all terrors hang over me, (yet) I will lend aid.
5. Quamquam, with the force and yet, is often used to introduce principal clauses; as,—
quamquam quid loquor, and yet why do I speak?
6. In post-Augustan writers quamquam is freely construed with the Subjunctive, while quamvīs is often used to introduce statements of fact, and takes either the Indicative or the Subjunctive. Thus:—
quamquam movērētur hīs vōcibus, although he was moved by these words;
quamvīs multī opīnārentur, though many thought;
quamvīs īnfēstō animō pervēnerās, though you had come with hostile intent.
310. These particles are followed by the Subjunctive (negative nē) and have two distinct uses:—
I. They are used to introduce clauses embodying a wish entertained by the subject of the leading verb; as,—
multī honesta neglegunt dummodo potentiam cōnsequantur, many neglect honor in their desire to obtain power (if only they may attain);
omnia postposuī, dum praeceptīs patris pārērem, I made everything else secondary, in my desire to obey the injunctions of my father;
nīl obstat tibi, dum nē sit dītior alter, nothing hinders you in your desire that your neighbor may not be richer than you.
II. They are used to express a proviso ('provided that'); as,—
ōderint, dum metuant, let them hate, provided they fear;
manent ingenia senibus, modo permaneat studium et industria, old men retain their faculties, provided only they retain their interest and vigor;
nūbant, dum nē dōs fiat comes, let them marry, provided no dowry goes with it.
311. Relative Clauses are introduced by Relative Pronouns, Adjectives, or Adverbs.
312. 1. Relative clauses usually stand in the Indicative Mood, especially clauses introduced by those General Relatives which are doubled or have the suffix -oumque; as,—
quidquid id est, timeō Danaōs et dōna ferentēs, whatever it is, I fear the Greeks even when they offer gifts;
quidquid oritur, quālecumque est, causam ā nātūrā habet, whatever comes into being, of whatever sort it is, has its primal cause in Nature.
2. Any simple Relative may introduce a conditional sentence of any of the three types mentioned in §§ 302-304; as,—
quī hōc dīcit, errat, he who says this is mistaken (First Type);
quī hōc dīcat, erret, he would be mistaken who should say this (Second Type);
quī hōc dīxisset, errāsset, the man who had said this would have been mistaken.
313. When the language or thought of any person is reproduced without change, that is called Direct Discourse (Ōrātiō Recta); as, Caesar said, 'The die is cast.' When, on the other hand, one's language or thought is made to depend upon a verb of saying, thinking, etc., that is called Indirect Discourse (Ōrātiō Oblīqua); as, Caesar said that the die was cast; Caesar thought that his troops were victorious.
a. For the verbs most frequently employed to introduce Indirect Discourse, see § 331.
MOODS IN INDIRECT DISCOURSE.
314. 1. Declarative Sentences upon becoming Indirect change their main clause to the Infinitive with Subject Accusative, while all subordinate clauses take the Subjunctive; as,—
Rēgulus dīxit quam diū jūre jūrandō hostium tenērētur nōn esse sē senātōrem, Regulus said that as long as he was held by his pledge to the enemy he was not a senator. (Direct: quam diū teneor nōn sum senātor.)
2. The verb of saying, thinking, etc., is sometimes to be inferred from the context; as,—
tum Rōmulus lēgātōs circā vīcīnās gentēs mīsit quī societātem cōnūbiumque peterent: urbēs quoque, ut cētera, ex īnfimō nāscī, then Romulus sent envoys around among the neighboring tribes, to ask for alliance and the right of intermarriage, (saying that) cities, like everything else, start from a modest beginning.
3. Subordinate clauses which contain an explanatory statement of the writer and so are not properly a part of the Indirect Discourse, or which emphasize the fact stated, take the Indicative; as,—
nūntiātum est Ariovistum ad occupandum Vesontiōnem, quod est oppidum maximum Sēquanōrum contendere, it was reported that Ariovistus was hastening to seize Vesontio, which is the largest town of the Sequani.
4. Sometimes a subordinate clause is such only in its external form, and in sense is principal. It then takes the Infinitive with Subject Accusative. This occurs especially in case of relative clauses, where quī is equivalent to et hīc, nam hīc, etc.; as,—
dīxit urbem Athēniēnsium prōpugnāculum oppositum esse barbarīs, apud quam jam bis classēs rēgiās fēcisse naufragium, he said the city of the Athenians had been set against the barbarians like a bulwark, near which (= and near it) the fleets of the King had twice met disaster.
5. The Subject Accusative of the Infinitive is sometimes omitted when it refers to the same person as the subject of the leading verb, or can easily be supplied from the context; as,—
cum id nescīre Māgō dīceret, when Mago said he did not know this (for sē nescīre).
315. 1. Real questions of the Direct Discourse, upon becoming indirect, are regularly put in the Subjunctive; as,—
Ariovistus Caesarī respondit: sē prius in Galliam vēnisse quam populum Rōmānum. Quid sibi vellet? Cūr in suās possessiōnēs venīret, Ariovistus replied to Caesar that he had come into Gaul before the Roman people. What did he (Caesar) mean? Why did he come into his domain? (Direct: quid tibi vīs? cūr in meās possessiōnēs venīs?)
2. Rhetorical questions, on the other hand, being asked merely for effect, and being equivalent in force to emphatic statements, regularly stand in the Infinitive in Indirect Discourse. Thus :—
quid est levius (lit. what is more trivial, = nothing is more trivial) of the Direct Discourse becomes quid esse levius in the Indirect.
3. Deliberative Subjunctives of the Direct Discourse remain unchanged in mood in the Indirect: as,—
quid faceret, what was he to do? (Direct: quid faciat?)
316. All Imperatives or Jussive Subjunctives of the Direct Discourse appear as Subjunctives in the Indirect; as,—
mīlitēs certiōrēs fēcit paulisper intermitterent proelium, he told the soldiers to stop the battle for a little. (Direct: intermittite.)
a. The negative in such sentences is nē; as,—
nē suae virtūtī tribueret, let him not attribute it to his own valor!
TENSES IN INDIRECT DISCOURSE.
317. These are used in accordance with the regular principles for the use of the Infinitive as given in § 270.
a. The Perfect Infinitive may represent any past tense of the Indicative of Direct Discourse. Thus:—
sciō tē haec ēgisse may mean—
I know you were doing this.(Direct: haec agēbās.)
I know you did this. (Direct: haec ēgistī.)
I know you had done this. (Direct: haec ēgerās.)
318. These follow the regular principle for the Sequence of Tenses, being Principal if the verb of saying is Principal; Historical if it is Historical. Yet for the sake of vividness, we often find the Present Subjunctive used after an historical tense (Repraesentātiō); as,—
Caesar respondit, sī obsidēs dentur, sēsē pācem esse factūrum, Caesar replied that, if hostages be given, he would make peace.
a. For the sequence after the Perfect Infinitive, see § 268, 2.
CONDITIONAL SENTENCES IN INDIRECT DISCOURSE.
319. A. THE APODOSIS. Any tense of the Indicative is changed to the corresponding tense of the Infinitive (§§ 270; 317, a).
B. THE PROTASIS. The protasis takes those tenses of the Subjunctive which are required by the Sequence of Tenses.
|sī hōc crēdis, errās,||
dīcō, sī hōc crēdās, tē
dīxī, sī hōc crēderēs, tē errāre.
|sī hōc crēdēs, errābis,||
dīcō, sī hōc crēdās, tē
dīxī, sī hōc crēderēs, tē errātūrum esse.
|sī hōc crēdideris, errābis,||
dīcō, sī hōc crēderīs, tē
dīxī, sī hōc crēdidissēs, tē errātūrum esse.
|sī hōc crēdēbās, errāvistī,||
dīcō, sī hōc crēderēs, tē
dīxī, sī hōc crēderēs, tē errāvisse.
a. Note that a Future Perfect Indicative of the Direct Discourse regularly appears in the Indirect as a Perfect Subjunctive after a principal tense, and as a Pluperfect Subjunctive after an historical tense.
320. A. THE APODOSIS. The Present Subjunctive of the Direct Discourse regularly becomes the Future Infinitive of the Indirect.
B. THE PROTASIS. The Protasis takes those tenses of the Subjunctive demanded by the sequence of tenses.
|sī hōc crēdās, errēs,||
dīcō, sī hōc crēdās, tē
dīxī, sī hōc crēderēs, tē errātūrum esse;
321. A. THE APODOSIS.
1. The Imperfect Subjunctive of the Direct Discourse becomes the Future Infinitive.
a. But this construction is rare, being represented in the classical Latinity by a single example (Caesar, V. 29. 2). Some scholars question the correctness of this passage.
2. The Pluperfect Subjunctive of the Direct Discourse becomes:—
a) In the Active Voice the Infinitive in -ūrus fuisse.
b) In the Passive Voice it takes the form futūrum fuisse ut with the Imperfect Subjunctive.
B. THE PROTASIS. The protasis in Conditional Sentences of this type always remains unchanged.
|sī hōc crēderēs, errārēs,||dīcō (dīxī), sī hōc crēderēs, tē errātūrum esse;|
|sī hōc crēdidissēs, errāvissēs,||dīcō (dīxī), sī hōc crēdidissēs, tē errātūrum fuisse;|
|sī hōc dīxissēs, pūnītus essēs.||dīcō (dīxī), sī hōc dīxissēs, futūrum fuisse ut pūnīrēris.|
322. When an apodosis of a conditional sentence of the Third Type referring to the past is at the same time a Result clause or a quīn-clause (after nōn dubitō, etc.), it stands in the Perfect Subjunctive in the form -ūrus fuerim; as,—
ita territī sunt, ut arma trāditūrī fuerint, nisi Caesar subitō advēnisset, they were so frightened that they would have given up their arms, had not Caesar suddenly arrived;
nōn dubitō quīn, sī hōc dīxissēs, errātūrus fuerīs, I do not doubt that, if you had said this, you would have made a mistake.
a. This peculiarity is confined to the Active Voice. In the Passive, such sentences, when they become dependent, remain unchanged; as,—
nōn dubitō quīn, sī hōc dīxissēs, vituperātus essēs, I do not doubt that, if you had said this, you would have been blamed.
b. When an Indirect Question becomes an apodosis in a conditional sentence of the Third Type, -ūrus fuerim (rarely -ūrus fuissem) is used; as,—
quaerō, num, sī hōc dīxissēs, errātūrus fuerīs (or fuissēs).
c. Potuī, when it becomes a dependent apodosis in sentences of this Type, usually changes to the Perfect Subjunctive; as,—
concursū tōtīus civitātis dēfēnsī sunt, ut frīgidissimōs quoque ōrātōrēs populī studia excitāre potuerint, they were defended before a gathering of all the citizens, so that the interest of the people would have been enough to excite even the most apathetic orators.
IMPLIED INDIRECT DISCOURSE.
323. The Subjunctive is often used in subordinate clauses whose indirect character is merely implied by the context; as,—
dēmōnstrābantur mihi praetereā, quae Sōcratēs dē immortālitāte animōrum disseruisset, there were explained to me besides, the arguments which Socrates had set forth concerning the immortality of the soul (i.e. the arguments which, it was said, Socrates had set forth);
Paetus omnēs librōs quōs pater suus relīquisset mihi dōnāvit, Paetus gave me all the books which (as he said) his father had left.
SUBJUNCTIVE BY ATTRACTION.
324. 1. Subordinate clauses dependent upon the Subjunctive are frequently attracted into the same mood especially when they do not express a fact, but constitute an essential part of one complex idea; as,—
nēmō avārus adhūc inventus est, cui, quod habēret, esset satis, no miser has yet been found who was satisfed with what he had;
cum dīversās causās afferrent, dum fōrmam suī quisque et animī et ingeniī redderent, as they brought forward different arguments, while each mirrored his own individual type of mind and natural bent;
quod ego fatear, pudeat? should I be ashamed of a thing which I admit?
2. Similarly a subordinate clause dependent upon an Infinitive is put in the Subjunctive when the two form one closely united whole; as,—
mōs est Athēnīs quotannīs in cōntiōne laudārī eōs quī sint in proeliīs interfectī, it is the custom at Athens every year for those to be publicly eulogized who have been killed in battle. (Here the notion of 'praising those who fell in battle' forms an inseparable whole.)
325. These are the Infinitive, Participle, Gerund, and Supine. All of these partake of the nature of the Verb, on the one hand, and of the Noun or Adjective, on the other. Thus:—
a) They may be limited by adverbs;
b) They admit an object;
c) They have the properties of voice and tense.
As Nouns or Adjectives,—
a) They are declined;
b) They take Noun or Adjective constructions.
326. This is used chiefly as Subject or Object but also as Predicate or Appositive.
NOTE.—The Infinitive was originally a Dative, and traces of this are still to be seen in the poetical use of the Infinitive to express purpose; as, nec dulcēs occurrent ōscula nātī praeripere, and no sweet children will run to snatch kisses.
A. As Subject.
327. 1. The Infinitive without Subject Accusative is used as the Subject of esse and various impersonal verbs, particularly opus est, necesse est, oportet, juvat, dēlectat, placet, libet, licet, praestat, decet, pudet, interest, etc.; as,—
dulce et decōrum est prō patriā morī, it is sweet and noble to die for one's country;
virōrum est fortium toleranter dolōrem patī, it is the part of brave men to endure pain with patience;
senātuī placuit lēgātōs mittere, the Senate decided (lit. it pleased the Senate) to send envoys.
2. Even though the Infinitive itself appears without Subject, it may take a Predicate Noun or Adjective in the Accusative; as,—
aliud est īrācundum esse, aliud īrātum, it is one thing to be irascible, another to be angry;
impūne quaelibet facere, id est rēgem esse, to do whatever you please with impunity, that is to be a king.
a. But when licet is followed by a Dative of the person, a Predicate Noun or Adjective with esse is attracted into the same case; as, licuit esse ōtiōsō Themistoclī, lit. it was permitted to Themistocles to be at leisure. So sometimes with other Impersonals.
B. As Object.
328. 1. The Infinitive without Subject Accusative is used as the Object of many verbs, to denote another action of the same subject, particularly after—
volō, cupiō, mālō,
nōlō, dēbeo, ought;
statuō, cōnstituō, decide;
studeō, contendō, strive;
parō, prepare (so parātus);
incipiō, coepī, īnstituō, begin;
dēsinō, dēsistō, cease;
cōgitō, meditor, purpose,
vereor, timeō, fear;
mātūrō, festīnō, properō, contendō, hasten;
assuēscō, cōnsuēscō, accustom myself (so assuētus, īnsuētus, assuēfactus);
sciō, know how;
soleō, am wont;
tū hōs intuērī audēs, do you dare to look on these men?
Dēmosthenēs ad flūctūs maris dēclāmāre solēbat, Demosthenes used to declaim by the waves of the sea.
2. A Predicate Noun or Adjective with these Infinitives is attracted into the Nominative; as,—
beātus esse sine virtūte nēmō potest, no one can be happy without virtue;
Catō esse quam vidērī bonus mālēbat, Cato preferred to be good rather than to seem so.
329. This is used chiefly as Subject or Object but also as Predicate or Appositive.
A. As Subject.
330. The Infinitive with Subject Accusative (like the simple Infinitive) is used as Subject with esse and Impersonal verbs, particularly with aequum est, ūtile est, turpe est, fāma est, spēs est, fās est, nefās est, opus est, necesse est, oportet, cōnstat, praestat, licet, etc.; as,—
nihil in bellō oportet contemnī, nothing ought to be despised in war;
apertum est sibi quemque nātūrā esse cārum, it is manifest that by nature everybody is dear to himself.
B. As Object.
331. The Infinitive with Subject Accusative is used as Object after the following classes of verbs:
1. Most frequently after verbs of saying, thinking, knowing, perceiving, and the like (Verba Sentiendi et Dēclārandī). This is the regular construction of Principal Clauses of Indirect Discourse. Verbs that take this construction are, among others, the following: sentiō, audiō, videō, cognōscō; putō, jūdicō, spērō, cōnfīdō; sciō, meminī; dicō, affīrmō, negō (say that ... not), trādō, nārrō, fateor, respondeō, scrībō, prōmittō, glōrior. Also the phrases: certiōrem faciō (inform), memoriā teneō (remember), etc.
Epicūrēī putant cum corporibus simul animōs interīre, the Epicureans think that the soul perishes with the body;
Thalēs dīxit aquam esse initium rērum, Thales said that water was the first principle of the universe;
Dēmocritus negat quicquid esse sempiternum, Democritus says nothing is everlasting;
spērō eum ventūrum esse, I hope that he will come.
II. With jubeō, order, and vetō, forbid; as,—
Caesar mīlitēs pontem facere jussit, Caesar ordered the soldiers to make a bridge.
a. When the name of the person who is ordered or forbidden to do something is omitted, the Infinitive with jubeō and vetō is put in the Passive; as, Caesar pontem fierī jussit.
III. With patior and sinō, permit, allow; as,—
nūllō sē implicārī negōtiō passus est, he did not permit himself to be involved in any difficulty.
IV. With volō, nōlō, mālō, cupiō, when the Subject of the Infinitive is different from that of the governing verb; as,—
nec mihi hunc errōrem extorquērī volō, nor do I wish this error to be wrested from me;
eās rēs jactārī nōlēbat, he was unwilling that these matters should be discussed;
tē tuā fruī virtūte cupimus, we desire that you enjoy your worth.
a. When the Subject of both verbs is the same, the simple Infinitive is regularly used in accordance with § 328, 1. But exceptions occur, especially in case of esse and Passive Infinitives as,—
cupiō mē esse clēmentem, I desire to be lenient;
Tīmoleōn māluit sē diligī quam metuī, Timoleon preferred to be loved rather than feared.
b. Volō also admits the Subjunctive, with or without ut; nōlō the Subjunctive alone. (See § 296, 1, a.)
V. With Verbs of emotion (joy, sorrow, regret, etc.), especially gaudeō, laetor, doleō; aegrē ferō, molestē ferō, graviter ferō, am annoyed, distressed; mīror, queror, indignor; as,—
gaudeō tē salvum advenīre, I rejoice that you arrive safely;
nōn molestē ferunt sē libīdinum vinculīs laxātōs ēsse, they are not troubled at being released from the bonds of passion;
mīror tē ad mē nihil scrībere, I wonder that you write me nothing.
a. Instead of an Infinitive these verbs also sometimes admit a quod- clause as Object. (See § 299.) Thus:—
mīror quod nōn loqueris, I wonder that you do not speak.
VI. Some verbs which take two Accusatives, one of the Person and the other of the Thing (§ 178, 1), may substitute an Infinitive for the second Accusative; as,—
cōgō tē hōc facere, I compel you to do this (cf. tē hōc cōgō);
docuī tē contentum esse, I taught you to be content (cf. tē modestiam docuī, I taught you temperance).
332. Those verbs which in the Active are followed by the Infinitive with Subject Accusative, usually admit the personal construction of the Passive. This is true of the following and of some others:—
a) jubeor, vetor, sinor; as,—
mīlitēs pontem facere jussī sunt, the soldiers were ordered to build a bridge;
pōns fierī jussus est, a bridge was ordered built;
mīlitēs castrīs exīre vetitī sunt, the troops were forbidden to go out of the camp;
Sēstius Clōdium accūsāre nōn est situs, Sestius was not allowed to accuse Clodius.
b) videor, I am seen, I seem; as,—
vidētur comperisse, he seems to have discovered.
c) dīcor, putor, exīstimor, jūdicor (in all persons); as,—
dīcitur in Italiam vēnisse, he is said to have come into Italy;
Rōmulus prīmus rēx Rōmānōrum fuisse putātur, Romulus is thought to have been the first king of the Romans.
d) fertur, feruntur, trāditur, trāduntur (only in the third person); as,—
fertur Homērus caecus fuisse, Homer is said to have been blind;
carmina Archilochī contumēliīs referta esse trāduntur, Archilochus's poems are reported to have been full of abuse.
NOTE.—In compound tenses and periphrastic forms, the last two classes of verbs, c), d), more commonly take the impersonal construction; as—
trāditum est Homērum caecum fuisse, the story goes that Homer was blind.
333. The Infinitive with Adjectives (except parātus, assuētus, etc.; see § 328, 1) occurs only in poetry and post-Augustan prose writers; as,—
contentus dēmōnstrāsse, contented to have proved;
audāx omnia perpetī, bold for enduring everything.
334. The Infinitive is used in Exclamations implying scorn, indignation, or regret. An intensive -ne is often attached to some word in the clause. Examples:—
huncine sōlem tam nigrum surrēxe mihi, to think that to-day's sun rose with such evil omen for me!
sedēre tōtōs diēs in vīllā, to stay whole days at the villa.
335. The Infinitive is often used in historical narrative instead of the Imperfect Indicative. The Subject stands in the Nominative; as,—
interim cottīdiē Caesar Haeduōs frūmentum flāgitāre, meanwhile Caesar was daily demanding grain of the Haedui.
336. 1. The tenses of the Participle, like those of the infinitive (see § 270), express time not absolutely, but with reference to the verb upon which the Participle depends.
2. The Present Participle denotes action contemporary with that of the verb. Thus:—
audiō tē loquentem = you ARE speaking and I hear you;
audiēbam tē loquentem = you WERE speaking and I heard you;
audiam tē loquentem = you WILL BE speaking and I shall hear you.
a. The Present Participle is sometimes employed with Conative force; as,—
assurgentem rēgem resupīnat, as the king was trying to rise, he threw him down.
3. The Perfect Passive Participle denotes action prior to that of the verb. Thus:—
locūtus taceō = I HAVE spoken and am silent;
locūtus tacui = I HAD spoken and then was silent;
locūtus tacēbō = I SHALL speak and then shall be silent.
4. The absolute time of the action of a participle, therefore, is determined entirely by the finite verb with which it is connected.
5. Certain Perfect Passive Participles of Deponent and Semi-Deponent Verbs are used as Presents; viz. arbitrātus, ausus, ratus, gāvīsus, solitus, ūsus, cōnfīsus, diffīsus, secūtus, veritus.
337. As an Adjective the Participle may be used either as an attributive or predicate modifier of a Substantive.
1. Attributive Use. This presents no special peculiarities. Examples are:—
glōria est cōnsentiēns laus bonōrum, glory is the unanimous praise of the good;
Conōn mūrōs ā Lysandrō dīrutōs reficit, Conon restored the walls destroyed by Lysander.
2. Predicate Use. Here the Participle is often equivalent to a subordinate clause. Thus the Participle may denote:—
a) Time; as,—
omne malum nāscēns facile opprimitur, every evil is easily crushed at birth.
b) A Condition; as,—
mente ūtī nōn possumus cibō et pōtiōne complētī, if gorged with food and drink, we cannot use our intellects.
c) Manner; as,—
Solōn senēscere sē dīcēbat multa in diēs addiscentem, Solon said he grew old learning many new things daily.
d) Means; as,—
sōl oriēns diem cōnficit, the sun, by its rising, makes the day.
e) Opposition ('though'); as,—
mendācī hominī nē vērum quidem dīcentī crēdimus, we do not believe a liar, though he speaks the truth.
f) Cause; as,—
perfidiam veritus ad suōs recessit, since he feared treachery, he returned to his own troops.
3. Videō and audiō, besides the Infinitive, take the Present Participle in the Predicate use; as,—
videō tē fugientem, I see you fleeing.
a. So frequently faciō, fingō, indūcō, etc.; as,—
eīs Catōnem respondentem facimus, we represent Cato replying to them;
Homērus Laërtem colentem agrum facit, Homer represents Laërtes tilling the field.
4. The Future Active Participle (except futūrus) is regularly confined to its use in the Periphrastic Conjugation, but in poets and later writers it is used independently, especially to denote purpose; as,—
vēnērunt castra oppugnātūrī, they came to assault the camp.
5. The Perfect Passive Participle is often equivalent to a coördinate clause; as,—
urbem captam dīruit, he captured and destroyed the city (lit. he destroyed the city captured).
6. The Perfect Passive Participle in combination with a noun is sometimes equivalent to an abstract noun with a dependent Genitive; as,—
post urbem conditam, after the founding of the city;
Quīnctius dēfēnsus, the defense of Quinctius;
quibus animus occupātus, the preoccupation of the mind with which.
7. Habeō sometimes takes a Perfect Passive Participle in the Predicate construction with a force not far removed from that of the Perfect or Pluperfect Indicative; as,—
equitātus quem coāctum habēbat, the cavalry which he had collected.
8. The Gerundive denotes obligation, necessity, etc. Like other Participles it may be used either as Attributive or Predicate.
a) Less frequently as Attributive. Thus:—
liber legendus, a book worth reading;
lēgēs observandae, laws deserving of observance.
b) More frequently as Predicate.
1) In the Passive Periphrastic Conjugation (amandus est, etc.). In this use Intransitive Verbs can be used only impersonally, but admit their ordinary case-construction (Gen., Dat., Abl.); as,—
veniendum est, it is necessary to come;
oblīvīscendum est offēnsārum, one must forget injuries;
numquam prōditōrī crēdendum est, you must never trust a traitor;
suō cuique ūtendum est jūdiciō, every man must use his own judgment.
2) After cūrō, provide for; dō, trādō, give over; relinquō, leave; concēdō, hand over, and some other verbs, instead of an object clause, or to denote purpose; as,—
Caesar pontem in Ararī faciendum cūrāvit, Caesar provided for the construction of a bridge over the Arar;
imperātor urbem mīlitibus dīripiendam concessit, the general handed over the city to the soldiers to plunder.
9. For the Gerundive as the equivalent of the Gerund, see § 339, 1.
338. As a verbal noun the Gerund admits noun constructions as follows:—
1. Genitive. The Genitive of the Gerund is used—
a) With Nouns, as objective or Appositional Genitive (see §§ 200, 202); as,—
cupiditās dominandī, desire of ruling;
ars scrībendī, the art of writing.
b) With Adjectives; as,—
cupidus audiendī, desirous of hearing.
c) With causā, grātiā; as,—
discendī causā, for the sake of learning.
2. Dative. The Dative of the Gerund is used—
a) With Adjectives; as,—
aqua ūtilis est bibendō, water is useful for drinking.
b) With Verbs (rarely); as,—
adfuī scrībendō, I was present at the writing.
3. Accusative. The Accusative of the Gerund is used only with Prepositions, chiefly ad and in to denote purpose; as,—
homō ad agendum nātus est, man is born for action.
4. Ablative. The Ablative of the Gerund is used—
a) Without a Preposition, as an Ablative of Means, Cause, etc. (see §§ 218, 219); as,—
mēns discendō alitur et cōgitandō, the mind is nourished by learning and reflection.
Themistoclēs maritimōs praedōnēs cōnsectandō mare tūtum reddidit, Themistocles made the sea safe by following up the pirates.
b) After the prepositions ā, dē, ex, in; as,—
summa voluptās ex discendō capitur, the keenest pleasure is derived from learning;
multa dē bene beātēque vīvendō ā Platōne disputāta sunt, there was much discussion by Plato on the subject of living well and happily.
5. As a rule, only the Genitive of the Gerund and the Ablative (without a preposition) admit a Direct Object.
339. 1. Instead of the Genitive or Ablative of the Gerund with a Direct Object, another construction may be, and very often is, used. This consists in putting the Direct Object in the case of the Gerund (Gen. or Abl.) and using the Gerundive in agreement with it. This is called the Gerundive Construction. Thus:—
|GERUND CONSTRUCTION.||GERUNDIVE CONSTRUCTION.|
|cupidus urbem videndī, desirous of seeing the city.||cupidus urbis videndae;|
|dēlector ōrātōrēs legendō, I am charmed with reading the orators.||dēlector ōrātōribus legendīs|
2. The Gerundive Construction must be used to avoid a Direct Object with the Dative of the Gerund, or with a case dependent upon a Preposition; as,—
locus castrīs mūniendīs aptus, a place adapted to fortifying a camp;
ad pācem petendam vēnērunt, they came to ask peace;
multum temporis cōnsūmō in legendīs poētīs, I spend much time in reading the poets.
3. In order to avoid ambiguity (see § 236, 2), the Gerundive Construction must not be employed in case of Neuter Adjectives used substantively. Thus regularly—
philosophī cupidī sunt vērum invēstīgandī, philosophers are eager for discovering truth (rarely vērī invēstīgandī);
studium plūra cognōscendī, a desire of knowing more (not plūrium cognōscendōrum).
4. From the nature of the case only Transitive Verbs can be used in the Gerundive construction; but ūtor, fruor, fungor, potior (originally transitive) regularly admit it; as,—
hostēs in spem potiundōrum castrōrum vēnerant, the enemy had conceived the hope of gaining possession of the camp.
5. The Genitives meī, tuī, suī, nostrī, vestrī, when used in the Gerundive Construction, are regularly employed without reference to Gender or Number, since they were originally Neuter Singular Adjectives used substantively. Thus:—
mulier suī servandī causā aufūgit, the woman fled for the sake of saving herself;
lēgātī in castra vēnērunt suī pūrgandī causā, the envoys came into camp for the purpose of clearing themselves.
So nostrī servandī causā, for the sake of saving ourselves.
6. Occasionally the Genitive of the Gerundive Construction is used to denote purpose; as,—
quae ille cēpit lēgum ac lībertātis subvertundae, which he undertook for the purpose of overthrowing the laws and liberty.
7. The Dative of the Gerundive Construction occurs in some expressions which have the character of formulas; as,—
decemvirī lēgibus scrībundīs, decemvirs for codifying the laws;
quīndecimvirī sacrīs faciundīs, quindecimvirs for performing the sacrifices.
340. 1. The Supine in -um is used after Verbs of motion to express purpose; as,—
lēgātī ad Caesarem grātulātum convēnērunt, envoys came to Caesar to congratulate him.
a. The Supine in -um may take an Object; as,—
pācem petītum ōrātōrēs Rōmam mittunt, they send envoys to Rome to ask for peace.
b. Note the phrase:—
dō (collocō) fīliam nūptum, I give my daughter in marriage.
2. The Supine in -ū is used as an Ablative of Specification with facilis, difficilis, incrēdibilis, jūcundus, optimus, etc.; also with fās est, nefās est, opus est; as,—
haec rēs est facilis cognitū, this thing is easy to learn;
hōc est optimum factū, this is best to do.
a. Only a few Supines in -ū are in common use, chiefly audītū, cognitū, dictū, factū, vīsū.
b. The Supine in -ū never takes an Object.
341. Copulative Conjunctions. These join one word, phrase, or clause to another.
a) et simply connects.
b) -que joins more closely than et, and is used especially where the two members have an internal connection with each other; as,—
parentēs līberīque, parents and children;
cum hominēs aestū febrīque jactantur, when people are tossed about with heat and fever.
c) atque (ac) usually emphasizes the second of the two things connected,—and also, and indeed, and in fact. After words of likeness and difference, atque (ac) has the force of as, than. Thus:—
ego idem sentiō ac tū, I think the same as you;
haud aliter ac, not otherwise than.
d) neque (nec) means and not, neither, nor.
a) -que is an enclitic, and is appended always to the second of two words connected. Where it connects phrases or clauses, it is appended to the first word of the second clause; but when the first word of the second clause is a Preposition, -que is regularly appended to the next following word; as,—
ob eamque rem, and on account of that thing.
b) atque is used before vowels and consonants; ac never before vowels, and seldom before c, g, qu.
c) et nōn is used for neque when the emphasis of the negative rests upon a special word; as,—
vetus et nōn ignōbilis ōrātor, an old and not ignoble orator.
d) For and nowhere, and never, and none, the Latin regularly said nec ūsquam, nec umquam, nec ūllus, etc.
3. Correlatives. Copulative Conjunctions are frequently used correlatively; as,—
et ... et, both ... and;
neque (nec) ... neque (nec), neither ... nor;
cum ... tum, while ... at the same time;
tum ... tum, not only ... but also.
et ... neque; neque ... et.
a. Note that the Latin, with its tendency to emphasize antithetical relations, often uses correlatives, especially et ... et, et ... neque, neque ... et, where the English employs but a single connective.